Chinese Buddhism 中国佛教

目录 Table of Contents

前言 Introduction

中国佛教包括汉传佛教藏传佛教南传佛教汉传佛教藏传佛教属于大乘佛教印度流传南传佛教印度流传斯里兰卡东南亚中国云南傣族地区

Chinese Buddhsim includes Han Chinese Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Theravada Buddhism. Han Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism belong to the Mahayana form of Buddhism, transmitted from India towards to the north. Theravada Buddhism spread south from India to Sri Lanka and South East Asia, and then to the are of the Dai ethnic group in Yunnan.

汉传佛教 Han Chinese Buddhism

佛教经由路径传入中国印度西域传入中原地区另一印度中国南方东汉67竺法兰迦叶摩腾随同蔡愔洛阳传教竺法兰翻译现存第一中文佛经四十二章经》,先后白马寺大法王寺洛阳白马寺成为中国第一

Buddhism came to China via two paths, one path from ancient India via the Western Regions of China into Central China and the other path from Southern India by Sea to Southern China. In 67 CE, during the Eastern Han Dynasty, Dharmaratna and Kasyapamatanga accompanied Cai Yin to Luoyang to evangelize. Dharmaratna translated the first Chinese Sutra, The Sutra of Forty-Two Sections, and stayed first in the White Horse Temple then at Da Fa Wang Temple. White Horse Temple in Luoyang thus became the first Buddhist temple in China.

三国时期佛教中心南方建业北方洛阳东晋高僧法显徒弟结伴同行,410印度斯里兰卡王国,后来法显传》。627玄奘出发冒险前往天竺天竺许多玄奘停留寺院包括当时如日中天著名那烂陀玄奘大师口述弟子辨机编辑大唐西域记》。中国古典小说西游记中心人物唐僧原型

During the Three Kingdoms period the centers of Buddhism were Jianye (present day Nanjing) in the south and Luoyang in the north. In the Eastern Jin the monk Fa Xian travelled with disciples to India, Sri Lanka, and other countries, arriving in the year 410 CE. Later he wrote the book Fa Xian's Pilgrimage to India. In 627, during the Tang Dynasty, Xuanzang left the ancient capital of Chang'an on a dangerous journey to India to seek scriptures. During his many years in India one of the temples that he spent time at was the well known Nalanda Temple at the time of its peak. Based on Xuan Zang's oral account, his disciple Bian Ji compiled Tang Records on the Western Regions. He is the model for the central character, the monk Tang Seng, in the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West.

藏传佛教 Tibetan Buddhism

藏传佛教密宗佛教藏传佛教世纪印度莲花生大师西藏世纪开始藏传佛教流传蒙古

The main form of Tibetan Buddhism is Tantric Buddhism. The Tibetan Buddhism tradition began the seventh century when Indian monk Padmasambhava came to Tibet. Starting in the thirteenth century Tibetan Buddhism was propogated to Mongolia.

布达拉宫位于拉萨规模宏伟建筑布达拉宫松赞干布文成公主兴修大昭寺坐落拉萨藏传佛教寺院布达拉宫大昭寺列为世界文化遗产

Potala Palace is located in Lhasa. It is a huge complex of architectural structures. Originally Potala Palace was built by Songtsen Gampo for Princess Wencheng. Jokhang Temple is a Tibetan Buddhist temple located in Lhasa. Potala Palace and Jokhang Temple are World Cultural Heritage sites.

南传佛教 Theravada Buddhism

南传佛教大约世纪缅甸传入中国云南地区最初佛法口耳相传大约世纪前后泰润文书写佛经缅甸传入西双版纳

Theravada Buddhism was brought to the Yunan area from Myanmar in about the seventh century. Initially, the Dharma was taught orally only. In about the eleventh century Buddhist sutras written in the Lannathai language were brought from Myanmar to Xishuangbanna.

汉传佛教宗派 Schools of Han Chinese Buddhism

汉传佛教宗派包括天台宗三论宗华严宗慈恩宗禅宗律宗净土宗密宗这些宗派朝代成立今天重要宗派净土宗禅宗

Han Chinese Buddhism schools include Tiantai, Sanlun, Huayan, Ci'en, Chan, Vinaya, Pure Land, and Tantric schools. These schools were all founded in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. Today, the main schools are Pure Land and Chan.

天台宗 Tiantai School

汉传佛教创立宗派天台宗创始人智顗(538-597),地理中心浙江天台山日本

The first Han Chinese Buddhism school was the Tiantai School. The founder of the school was Zhi Yi (538—597) and it was located at Mount Tiantai in Zhejiang. The school was also spread to Japan.

三论宗 Sanlun School

三论宗创始人吉藏大师(549-623)。宗派根据龙树中论》、《十二门论提婆百论成立

Also translated to English as the Three-Sastra School, the founder of the Sanlun School was Venerable Ji Zang (549-623). The school was founded based on the principles of the three canonical texts Knowledge of the Middle Way and Dvadasa-nikaya-sastra by Nagarjuna and Sata-sastra by Deva.

华严宗 Huayan School

华严宗华严经根本典籍创始人法藏(643-712)。

Also translated as the Avatamsaka School, this school takes the Garland Sutra as its canonical text. The founder of the school was Venerable Fa Zang (643—712 CE).

慈恩宗 Ci'en School

慈恩宗创始人吉藏大师慈恩宗印度瑜伽行唯识学派中国传承

Also translated as the Dharmalaksana School, the founder of this school was Venerable Xuan Zang. The Ci'en School was a Chinese continuation of the Indian Yogacara School.

禅宗 Chan School

西方禅宗“Zen”。禅宗主张禅定修行菩提达摩简称达摩禅宗禅宗主要经典包括楞伽经》、《金刚经六祖坛经》。

In the West Chan is also known as “Zen”. The Chan School advocates mediation for practice. Bodhidharma was the first patriarch of the Chan School. Important texts for the Chan School include the Lankavatara Sutra, the Diamond Sutra, and Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch.

律宗 Vinaya School

律宗着重研习戒律律宗创始人道宣法师(596—667)。

The Vinaya School emphasizes study and maintenance of monastic discipline. The founder of the Vinaya School was Venerable Dao Xuan (596 — 667 CE).

净土宗 Pure Land School

净土宗特殊修行方法阿弥陀佛名称净土国家目前净土宗派

The particular practice method of the Pure Land School is reciting the name of Amitabha Buddha. Pure Land practice was transmitted to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Today, Pure Land is the practice with the greatest following.

密宗 Tantric Buddhism

汉传佛教密宗开元(713-741善无畏金刚智不空成立

The Han Chinese Buddhism Tantric School was founded by Venerables Subhakarasimha, Vajrabodhi, and Amoghavajra during the Tang Dynasty Kai Yuan reign (713 — 741 CE).

寺院 Temples

寺院建筑 Temple Architecture

大多寺院坐北朝南寺院大门山门山门功德箱殿供奉弥勒塑像左右供奉四大天王塑像后面韦驮天菩萨塑像

Most temples face to the south. The main entrance to a temple is called the mountain gate. In the main entrance will be a collection box. Many temples have a Hall of Heavenly Kings, with a statue of Maitreya Boddhisattva and the Four Heavenly Kings to the left and right and a statue of Skanda Bodhisattva to the rear.

因为汉传佛教观音菩萨特殊位置寺院观音殿里边观音菩萨有的寺院殿特意其他菩萨因为五台山文殊菩萨特殊关系五台山寺庙殿特意文殊菩萨

Because Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva has a special place in Han Chinese Buddhism many temples have a Avalokitesvara Hall housing a statue of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva. Some temples have a hall for other Bodhisattvas. Because the Wutai Mountain area has a special connection with Manjushri Bodhisattva many temples there have a hall specially for Manjushri.

大雄宝殿平常位于寺院中心最大殿堂释迦牟尼阿弥陀佛药师佛释迦牟尼佛位于阿弥陀佛药师佛中间因为阿弥陀佛西方极乐世界所以左边)。因为药师佛东方净琉璃世界教主所以右边有的寺院万佛殿或者万佛楼作为主要殿堂里边五方五佛中间毗卢遮那佛东方阿閦佛南方宝生佛西方阿弥陀佛北方不空成就佛

The Mahavira Hall (Hall of the Great Heros) is usually located at the center of the temple and is the biggest structure. It houses statues of Sakyamuni, Amitabha, and Medicine Buddhas. Sakyamuni Buddha is located between the Amitabha and Medicine Buddhas. Because Amitabha Buddha is the founder of the Western Paradise he is positioned to the left (facing north). Because the Medicine Buddha is the founder of the Eastern Realm of Pure Lapis Lazuli he is positioned on the right. Some temples have a Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas to serve as the main temple hall with the Buddhas of the Five Directions inside. In the middle is Vairocana Buddha. In the East is Aksobhya Buddha. In the South is Ratnasambhava Buddha. In the West is Amitabha Buddha. In the North is Amoghasiddhi Buddha.

平常保留主要大师舍利寺院其他建筑物包括禅堂禅修祖师宗派祖师

Pagodas are often for maintaining the relics of important figures. Other structures found in temples include a meditation hall for meditating and a Founders' Hall for founders of the school.

寺院生活 Life in a Temple

有的寺院在家人挂单早晨左右早课晚上早点午餐晚餐纯素师父

Some temples allow lay people to stay overnight. At about five in the morning there is morning chanting and at night there is evening chanting. All meals are vegetarian. Venerables also do not eat onion or garlic.

佛教名山 Sacred Buddhist Mountains

寺院位置 Temple Locations

活动 Events

水陆法会 Water and Land Service

水陆法会中国佛教忏悔法会隆重之一这个法会起来法会复杂需要师父

The Water and Land Service is one of the grandest repentance ceremonies in Chinese Buddhism. The Dharma service originated with Liang Dynasty Emperor Wu. The service is complex and requires many venerables.

佛诞 Buddha's Birthday

佛诞农历四月汉传佛教重要节日

The Buddha's Birthday is on the 8th day of the 4th month in the lunar calendar. It is the most important festival in Han Chinese Buddhism.

大悲忏 Great Compassion Repentance Ceremony

大悲忏忏法,由于观世音菩萨慈悲帮助众生解决烦恼困难

In the Great Compassion Repentance Ceremony the compassion of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva helps living creatures overcome their vexations and difficulties.

放生 Releasing Living Creatures

放生其他动物然后它们大自然目前中国放生欢迎活动

Releasing living creatures is an activity were fish, birds, or other animals are bought and then released into the wild. At present, this is a very popular activity in China.

朝山 Pilgrimages

朝山一般环绕著名或者寺院

A pilgrimage is usually circling a famous mountain or temple.

翻译 Translators

红螺寺 Hongluo Temple

参考书目 References

  1. Zheng Lixin, 2004. Guide to Chinese Buddhism, Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, China. ISBN 7-119-03334-4
  2. Jing Hui, Venerable Master, 2008. The Gates of Chan Buddhism, Religious Cultural Publishing House, Beijing. 法师 宗教文化出版社北京 ISBN 978-7-80254-040-8.

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