Buddhism — Commonly used Vocabulary, Concepts, and Sutras
四圣谛 Four Noble Truths
四圣谛 or 苦集灭道 Four Noble Truths are
苦 suffering — suffering exists in life
集 desire — desire is the cause of suffering
灭 elimination — emancipation by eliminating desire
道 the way — the way 道 to emancipation is 八正道 the Noble Eightfold Path
八正道 Noble Eightfold Path
正见 Right Understanding
正思惟 Right Thought —
includes avoiding 三毒 the three poisons of greed, hatred, and ignorance
正语 Right Speech
正业 Right Action
正命 Right Livelihood
正精进 Right Effort — thes are 四正勤 the Four Right Efforts
正念 Right Mindfulness — keep one’s mind focused on
四念住 the Four Foundations of Mindfulness
正定 Right Concentration — refers to 四静虑 the four stages of meditative concentration
三法印 Three Dharma Seals
三毒 Three Poisons
四念住 Four Foundations of Mindfulness
法 mental objects or dharmas
Taking Refuge in the Buddha
Nánmó běn shì Shìjiāmóuní Fó
Let us take refuge with our teacher Sakyamuni Buddha.
To take refuge in the triple gem
Zì guīyī Fó, dāng yuàn zhòngshēng, tǐjiě dàdào, fà wú shàng xīn！
Taking refuge in the Buddha, I wish all sentient beings understand the highest doctrine and make
the greatest vow!
Zì guīyī fǎ, dāng yuàn zhòngshēng, shēnrù Jīngzàng, zhìhuì rù hǎi！
Taking refuge in the Dharma, I wish all sentient beings study deeply the Sutra Pitaka and acquire
an ocean of wisdom!
Zì guīyī sēng, dāng yuàn zhòngshēng, tǒng lǐ dàzhòng, yīqiè wú ài！
Taking refuge in the Sangha, I wish all sentient beings lead the congregation in harmony and without
Transfer of Merits
Cíbēi xǐ shě biàn fǎjiè
May kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity pervade all Dharma realms.
Xīfú jié yuán lì réntiān
May all sentient beings benefit from our blessings and friendship.
Chán jìng jièháng píngděng rěn.
May our mindful practice of meditation and precepts help us realize equality.
Cánkuì gǎn ēn dà yuàn xīn.
May we undertake the Great Vows with humility and gratitude.
Source: Hsi Lai Temple, Foguang Shan
Earnest cultivation yields fruitful harvest
(This couplet from 2009 牛年
the Year of the Ox is a play on cultivation with a 耕
plough and 修行
Buddhist cultivation for a spiritually richer life)
No sexual misconduct
No false speech
Types of Buddhism
Pure Land School
The Buddha's ten great disciples
- 大迦葉（摩诃迦叶） Mahakassapa — first in ascetic practice (苦行)
- 目犍连（目连）Maudgalyayana — first in magical powers (神通)
Puma — first in teaching the Dharma
Subhuti — first in understanding of emptiness
Sariputra — first in wisdom
Rahula — the only son of the Buddha
Ananda — first in memory
Upali — first in upholding the precepts
阿尼律陀（阿尼律）Aniruddha — first in observation
Katyayana — first in discussion
The five aggregates
The five aggregates are form, feelings, thought, actions, and consciousness.
The five contemplations at mealtimes
(1) Contemplate the hard work and merit of the people that have brought the food to you and the different places that it
(2) Comtemplate your own merit and whether it is worthy of receiving the food offered.
(3) Protect your mind from excess, especially greed.
(4) The proper purpose of food is for nutrition to prevent our bodies from becoming malnurished.
(5) Accept this food to help you on your path to enlightenment.