Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

鼠标可以英语拼音点击中文可以详细中文英文数据

Mouse over to see English and pinyin for a Chinese word. Click the word to see full details in Chinese and English.

目录 Contents

  1. 导言 Introduction
  2. 词类 Parts of Speech
    1. 名词 Nouns
    2. 形容词 Adjectives
    3. 动词 Verbs
    4. 助动词 Auxiliary Verbs
    5. 代词 Pronouns
    6. 数词 Numerals
    7. 量词 Measure Words
    8. 副词 Adverbs
    9. 介词 Prepositions
    10. 连词 Conjunctions
    11. 助词 Particles
    12. 叹词 Interjections
    13. 象声词 Onomatopes
  3. 词组 Phrases
    1. 主谓词组 Subject-Predicate Phrases
    2. 动宾词组 Verb-Object Phrases
    3. 联合词组 Coordinative Phrases
    4. 偏正词组 Endocentric Phrases
    5. 数量词组 Numeral-Measure Word Phrases
    6. 补充词组 Complementary Phrases
    7. 方位词组 Phrases of Locality
    8. 同位词组 Appositive Phrases
    9. 固定词组 Set Phrases
    10. 介词结构 Prepositional Phrases
    11. “的”字结构 的 Phrases
  4. 句子成分 Sentence Elements
    1. 主语 The Subject
    2. 谓语 The Predicate
    3. 宾语 The Object
    4. 状语 Adverbial Adjuncts
    5. 补语 Complements
    6. 定语 The Attributive
  5. 单句 Simple Sentences
    1. 动词谓语句 Sentences with a Verbal Predicate
    2. 形容词谓语句 Sentences with an Adjectival Predicate
    3. 名词谓语句 Sentences with a Nominal Predicate
    4. 主谓谓语句 Sentences with a Subject-Predicate Phrase as the Predicate
    5. 无主句 Subjectless Sentences
    6. 独语句 One Word Sentences
    7. 简略句 Elliptical Sentences
  6. 句子用途 Sentence Use
    1. 陈述句 Declarative Sentences
    2. 疑问句 Interrogative Sentences
    3. 祈使句 Imperative Sentences
    4. 感叹句 Exclamatory Sentences
  7. 动作的状态 Aspects of an Action
    1. 动作的进行 The Progressive Aspect of an Action
    2. 动作的持续 The Continuous Aspect of an Action
    3. 动作的完成 The Perfect Aspect of an Action
    4. 将来的动作 Future Actions
    5. 过去的动作 Past Actions
  8. 用特殊动词谓语的句子 Sentences using Special Verbal Predicates
    1. “是”字句 是 Sentences
    2. “有”字句 有 Sentences
    3. “被”字句 被 Sentences
    4. “把”字句 把 Sentences
    5. 存现句 Existential Sentences
    6. 兼语句 Pivotal Sentences
    7. 连动句 Sentences with Verb Constructions in Series
  9. 复句 Complex Sentences
    1. 并列复句 Coordinate Complex Sentences
    2. 偏正复句 Subordinate Complex Sentences
  10. 表示比较 Expressing Comparison
    1. 用“比”表示比较 Using 比 to Express Comparison
    2. 用“跟”表示比较 Using 跟 to Express Comparison
    3. 用“象”表示比较 Using 象 to Express Comparison
  11. 词汇 Vocabulary
  12. 参考文献 References

导言 Introduction

汉语句子可以句子成分主语谓语宾语定语状语补语定语主语部分状语宾语谓语部分

Chinese sentences can have six types of elements: subject, predicate, object, attributive, adverbial adjunct, and complement. The attributive is a part of the subject. The object and the adverbial adjunct are parts of the predicate.

句子成分 Sentence Elements
主语 Subject 谓语 Predicate
  定语 Attributive 状语 Adverbial Adjunct   宾语 Object
    喜欢   红色
I like the color red.
母亲   美国
My mother is in the United States.
  努力 学习 中文
I am diligently studying Chinese.

句子可以单句复句

Sentences can be divided into two classes: simple sentences and compound sentences.

句子 Sentences
单句 Simple Sentences 复句 Compound Sentences
主渭句 Subject-Predicate Sentences 主渭句 Non-Subject-Predicate Sentences 分句 Clauses

汉语汉字代表音节

In Chinese one Chinese character represents a single syllable.

汉语可以分成实词虚词实词包括名词动词助动词形容词数词量词代词汉语丰富量词事物动作一定量词必须而且随便

Chinese words can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is notional words and the second kind has a purely grammatical purpose (function words). Notional words can be divided into seven categories: nouns, verbs, auxiliary verbs, adjectives, numerals, measure words, and pronouns. Chinese has a rich collection of measure words, one for each object and action. Measure words must be used and cannot be arbitrarily used.

实词 Notional Words
名词 Nouns 动词 Verbs 助动词 Auxilliary Verbs 形容词 Adjectives 数词 Numerals 量词 Measure Words 代词 Pronouns
名量词 Nominal 动量词 Verbal 人称代词 Personal 指示代词 Demonstrative 疑问代词 Interrogative
国家
妹妹
玫瑰
颜色
月亮
工作
学习


应该
可以


漂亮
诚实






亿



公分




我们



咱们




什么



怎么

虚词包括副词介词连词助词叹词象词

Function words include six kinds: adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, particles, interjections, and onomatopes.

虚词 Functional Words
副词 Adverbs 介词 Prepositions 连词 Conjunctions 助词 Particles 叹词 Interjections 象声词 Onomatope
结构助词 Structural 动态助词 Aspectual 语气助词 Modal




已经





但是
或者
并且
因为








哎呀

哗哗
乒乓

附类词头词尾成分

Affixes include prefixes and suffixes, which can both be used to construct sentence elements.

附类 Affixes
词头 Prefix 词尾 Suffix






词类 Parts of Speech

名词 Nouns

名词表示事物名称专有名词包括人名一些单音节名词可以重叠表示意思例如人人天天

Nouns express the names of people or objects. Proper nouns include place names and the names of people. Some monosyllabic nouns can be repeated to indicate every individual in a group, such as 人人 (everyone), (every day), and so on.

名词本身一般没有单数复数分别名词后面可以词尾表示复数例如同志先生。“轻声

In general, nouns do not inherently have a difference in singular and plural forms. When refering to peole the suffix can be used to indcate more than one person. For example, 同志 (comrades), 先生 (gentlemen), and so on. “” should be pronounced with the neutral tone.

方位词”,“经常名词后面例如脑袋路上但是地理名词后面”。方位词作主状语前面不用”。比如房子钢琴。“房子之前不用”。

The nouns of location and are often used after other nouns. For example, 脑袋 (on your head), 路上 (on the road), (in hand), (in my pocket), and so on. However, you cannot use the word after a geographic place names. When a noun of location is acting as the predicate or adverbial adjection is not needed. For example, in the sentence 房子钢琴 (There is a piano in the house), there is no before 房子.

名词定语一定修饰中心语前边例如玻璃还是?“玻璃”,“定语;“中心语

When a noun is acting as the attributive it must be placed before the modified word. For example, in the sentence 玻璃还是?(Would you like a glass or a porcelain cup?) The terms 玻璃 (glass) and (porcelain) act as the attributives and (cup) is the modified word.

形容词 Adjectives

形容词表示事物形状性质或者行为状态一般形容词前面副词修饰形容词可以正反提问例如:“筷子干净干净?”

Adjectives describe the form and characteristics of people and objects or the mode of an action. Most adjectives can be modified using an adverb placed in front. Adjectives can be used in affirmative-negative form to ask a question. For example, 筷子干净干净?(Are those chopsticks clean?)

一些形容词重叠表示程度加深例如:“头发”。形容词可以动词状语例如:“热情接待我们”。“热情状语,“接待动词

Some adjectives can be repeated to intensify their degree. For example, 头发。(Her hair is very long.) Adjectives can be used in front of verbs to act as abverbial adjuncts. For example, 热情接待我们。 (He cordially received us.) The adverbial adjunct is 热情 and the verb is 接待.

一般单音节形容词可以直接修饰中心语例如:“”。但是如果强调修饰可以助词例如:“天气”。双音形容词修饰单音名词一定助词”。例如:“漂亮”。双音形容词修饰双音名词可以可以不用”。

In general, a monosyllabic adjective can directly modify another word. For example, (white paper). However, if you wish to emphasize the modified nature then you may use the particle . For example, 天气 (very cold weather). When a dissyllabic adjective modifies a monosyllabic noun then the particle “” must be used. For example, 漂亮 (a beautiful flower). When a dissyllabic adjective modifies a dissyllabic noun then the particle is optional.

重叠双音形容词形式AABB。例如:“干净”。

When repeating adjectives use the form AABB. For example, 干净 (very clean).

形容词可以直接谓语例如:“个子”。“个子主语,“谓语这个情况可以副词”。例如:“个子"。

Adjectives can directly function as predicates. For example, 个子 (He is tall). The subject is 个子 (his height) and the predicate is (tall). In this situation, you may also use the adverb (very). For example, 个子 (He is tall).

”,“形容动物

(male) and (female) are used to describe the sex of animals.

动词 Verbs

动词表示动作行为心理活动发展变化及物动词后边可以直接宾语有一些动词可以宾语

Verbs express actions, behavior, mental processes, developing changes, and so on. Transitive verbs can be followed directly by an object. Some verbs can take only a single object.

可以宾语及物动词
Transitive Verbs that can only take one Object
动词 Verbs 宾语 Objects
ride 自行车 a bicycle a horse
穿 wear 裤子 trousers 袜子 socks
wear 眼镜 glasses 帽子 a hat
write 文章 an article a letter
visit 亲戚 relatives 朋友 friends
eat 面包 bread 饼干 a cookie
drink 牛奶 milk 啤酒 beer
保护 protect 自己 oneself 环境 the environment

有一些及物动词可以宾语

Some transitve verbs can take two objects.

可以宾语及物动词
Transitive Verbs that can take two Objects
动词 Verbs 宾语 Objects
give you 礼物 a gift
teach 学生 students 英语 English
ask 老师 the teacher 问题 a question
告诉 tell him 情况 the situation

不及物动词宾语例如存在休息咳嗽胜利腐败出生前进

Intransitive verbs cannot take object. Some examples are: (to live), (to be bad), (to be sick), (to be awake), 存在 (to exist), 休息 (to rest), 咳嗽 (to cough), 胜利 (to be victorious), 腐败 (to be corrupt), 出生 (to be born), and 前进 (to progress).

动词后面补充成分例如学会?“动词,“补充成分

Verbs can take a complement after them. For example, in the question 学会? (Can you do it now that you studied it?), is the verb and is the complement.

可以正反表示问题例如国语动词重叠造成问题

The affirmative-negative form can be used to express questions. For example, in the question 国语? (Can you speak Mandarin?) the verb is repeated to form the question.

一些名词形容词后面词尾造成动词

The suffix can be added to some nouns and adjectives to create verbs.

词尾作用名词
Use of the Suffix (Nouns)
名词 Noun 动词 Verb
政治 (politics) 政治化 (politicize)
现代 (modern age) 现代化 (modernize)
信息 (information) 信息化 (automate [IT])

词尾作用形容词
Use of the Suffix (Adjectives)
形容词 Adjective 动词 Verb
自动 (automatic) 自动化 (automate)
绿 (green) 绿化 (to make green / to landscape)
(warm) 暖化 (to warm)

动词

  1. 动词可以表示判断例如
    大夫
  2. 表示存在例如
    前边公安局

The verb

  1. The verb can be used to express judgement. For example:
    大夫。 (He is a doctor.)
  2. To express existence. For example, the sentence
    前边公安局。 (The police station is ahead.)

表示动作行为含有积极思维活动动词可以重叠例如打扫打扫启发启发一些动词不可重叠

  1. 心理活动, 例如:“害怕”、“羨慕”、“喜欢
  2. 变化例如 :“发生”、“发展”、“开始
  3. 存在判断领有例如 :“”、“”、“”、“
  4. 趋向例如:“”、“”、“”、“

Verbs expessing actions, behaviors, or including positive thought can be repeated. For example: (listen), 打扫打扫 (sweep), (think), 启发启发 (to inspire). Some verbs cannot be repeated:

  1. mental activities, such as 害怕 (to fear), 羨慕 (to envy), 喜欢 (to like), and so on
  2. changes, such as 发生 (to occur), 发展 (to develop), 开始 (to start)
  3. existence, judgement, and possession, such as (is at), (is), (to seem), (to have)
  4. indicating direction, such as (to get up), (to go past), (to go out), (to enter)

代词 Pronouns

代词可以代替名词动词形容词数词或者副词代词可以分成人称代词指示代词疑问代词人称代词代替或者事务自己人称代词指示代词区别或者事务这里这儿这么这样那里那儿那么那样指示代词疑问代词表示疑问什么哪里多少怎么怎样怎么样疑问代词

Pronouns can take the place of nouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, and adverbs. Pronouns can be classified as personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and interrogative pronouns. Personal pronouns take the place of people or things. 、and 自己 are all personal pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns distinguish people or things. 这里这儿这么这样那里那儿那么那样、and are all demonstrative pronouns. Interrogative pronoun express a question. 什么哪里哪儿多少怎么怎样 and 怎么样 are all interrogative pronouns.

代词作用代替词类基本相同比如哪里?”北京。“哪里代词代替北京”。

The use of pronouns are basically the same as the nouns they represent. For example, 哪里?(Where is Xiao Wang going?) 北京。 (Xiao Wang is going to Beijing.) 哪里 is the pronoun substituting for 北京.

助动词 Auxiliary Verbs

助动词帮助动词表示需要可能希望

  1. 表示能力
    能够
  2. 表示可能
    可以可能
  3. 表示情理需要
    应该应当
  4. 表示需要
    (děi)、必须
  5. 表示主观愿望
    愿意

Auxiliary verbs help verbs express need, possibility, or hope.

  1. expressing capability:
    (is capable of), 能够 (is capable of), (is able to)
  2. expressing possibility:
    (may), (may), 可以 (may), 可能 (may)
  3. expressing necessity:
    (should), (should), (should), 应该 (should), 应当 (should)
  4. expressing obligation:
    (děi, must), 必须 (must)
  5. expressing subjective willingness:
    (want to), (want to), (dare to), 愿意 (willing to)

助动词可以修饰动词形容词例如:“国语”。这个句子助动词修饰动词”。例如:“图书馆应该安静”。这个句子助动词应该修饰形容词安静”。

Auxiliary verbs can modify verbs or adjectives. For example, 国语 (I can speak Mandarin). In this sentence the auxiliary verb (can) modifies the verb (speak). For example, 图书馆应该安静 (The library should be quiet). In this sentence the auxiliary verb 应该 (should) modifies the adjective 安静 (quiet).

数词 Numerals

数词表示数目基本数字和大写数字表

Numerals express numbers. See Table of Basic and Accounting Numerals.

数字可以互相组合起来表示别的整数例如词头可以表示顺序例如:“”。可以量词表示倍数例如:“”。

Numerals can be arranged together for express other whole numbers. For example, (700,000). The prefix (dì) can be used to express order. For example, (number seven hundred and one). The measure word (bèi) can be used to represent multiples. For example, (three times).

可以“……”格式表示小数例如:“” (0.2)。可以“…分之…”格式表示分数例如:“分之”(3/4)、“百分之”(5%)。

The …… format can be used for expressing decimals. For example, (0.2). The …分之… format can be used for expressing fractions. For example, 分之” (3/4) and 百分之” (5%).

邻近数字可以表示例如:“”。“可以表示1-9之间例如:“阅览室只有杂志”。”、“”、“”、“后面数词表示多于前面数目例如:“我们多个学生”。

Two adjacent numerals can be used together to express an approximate quantity. For example, (3 or 4). can represent an approximate number between one and nine. For example, 阅览室只有杂志 (There are only a few kinds of magazine in the reading room). Used after the numerals (ten), (hundred), (thousand), and (ten thousand) the numeral represents a number greater than the number preceding it. For example, 我们学生 (In our class there are more than 30 students).

量词前边”,”。例如:“大象”。

In front of a measure word the number should be used rather than . For example, 大象 (two elephants).

量词 Measure Words

量词表示计算单位名量词表示事物单位动量词表示动作单位度量衡单位表

Measure words express counting units. Nominal measure words express units for people and things. Verbal measure words express the frequency of actions. See Units of Weights and Measures.

量词使用数词或者指示代词后边例如:“自行车”。“量词,“数词比如:“看见”。“量词,“指示代词

Measure words are used after numbers and demonstrative pronouns. For example,自行车 (I bought a bicycle). The measure word is and the number is . Another example is, 看见 (I see him every time I go). The measure word is (time) and the demonstrative pronoun is (every).

重叠量词意思例如:“聪明”。

Repeating measure words indicates “every.” For example, 聪明 (every one of them is clever).

名量词名词前边数量事物常见名量词表

Nominal measure words are used in front of nouns to describe quantities of objects. See List of Common Nominal Measure Words.

动量词动词数量动作比如:“”、“”、“”。“”、“”、“动量词大多数动量词动词后边补语比如:“”。

Verbal measure words are used with verbs to describe quantities of actions. For example, . are all verbal measure words. Most verbal measure words are placed after their verbs as complements. For example,

副词 Adverbs

副词动词形容词前边表示时间程度范围重叠否定可能语气有的副词可以关联作用例如:“”。“副词表示时间

Adverbs are placed in front of verbs or adjectives to express time, degree, scope, repetition, negation, possibility, or tone. Some adverbs can serve a connecting purpose. For example, 。 (He said his piece and then immediately left.) is an adverb expressing time.

副词基本作用状语例如:“他们已经出发”。

The basic use of adverbs is to act as adverbial adjuncts. For example, 他们已经出发。 (They have already left.)

表示否定但是具体用法一样。“否定

  1. 思想活动了解文章
  2. 常常活动从来
  3. 现在或者未来动作明天
  4. 助动词今天
  5. ”,“”,“”,“存在” — 老师
  6. 表示状态性质形容词例如:“这个句子”。
  7. 表示程度副词例如:“英文”。
  8. 表示范围副词例如:“我们一起”。

Although both are for negation, the use of and is different. is used to negate

  1. Mental activities — 了解文章。 (I do not understand this article.)
  2. Frequently performed actions — 从来。 (I never drink.)
  3. Present or future actions — 明天。 (I am not going tomorrow.)
  4. Auxiliary verbs — 今天。 (I will not rain today.)
  5. The verbs “”,“”,“”,“存在” — 老师。 (He is not my teacher.)
  6. Adjectvies expressing state or character — For example, 这个句子。 (This sentence is not correct.)
  7. Adverbs expressing degree — For example, 英文。 (My English is really not very good.)
  8. Adverbs expressing scope — For example, 我们一起。 (We are not going to all go together.)

否定

  1. ” — 比如,“有时?”
  2. 表示动作完成发生动词例如:“这样事故从来发生”。

is used to negate

  1. — For example, 有时? (Do you have time or not?)
  2. Verbs expressing completion or occurence of an action — For example, 这样事故从来发生。 (That kind of accident has never occurred.)

表示重叠但是用法一样。“表示情况动作已经重叠例如:“今天”。 (我们已经。)“用于将来动作例如:“我们看见”。

and both express repetition but their use is different. 又 expresses that a situation or action has already repeated. For example, 今天。(We have already left.) is used for future actions. For example, 我们看见。 (We will not see him again.)

”,“没有”,“大概”,“也许”,“可能副词可以单独回答问题

The adverbs 没有大概也许,and 可能 can stand alone as answers to questions.

介词 Prepositions

介词名词代词前面构成介词结构表示动作排除比较被动方式原因对象方向处所时间意义表示时间处所方向包括”、“”、“”、“”。表示对象”、“”、“”、“对于”、“关于”、“”、“”。表示原因”、“为了”、“由于”。表示方式按照”、“根据”。表示被动”、“”、“”。表示比较”。表示排除”、“除了”。

Prepositions are placed in front of nouns or pronouns to form prepositional phrases expressing the exclusion, comparison, being acted on, mode, cause, object, direction, place, or time of an action. Expressing time, place, and direction include 、and . Prepositions indicating an object are 对于关于、and . Prepositions expressing a cause include 为了、and 由于. Prepositions expressing mode are 按照 and 根据. Prepositions expressing the passive are 、and . Prepositions expressing comparison include . Prepositions expressing exclusion include and 除了.

例如:

  1. 大陆。“介词状语
  2. 关于皇帝故事。“关于介词定语
  3. 公共汽车天安门。“介词补语

Examples:

  1. 大陆。 (He is from the mainland.) is a preposition acting as an adverbial adjunct.
  2. 关于皇帝故事。 (This is a story about the Emperor.) 关于 is a preposition acting as an attributive.
  3. 公共汽车天安门。 (This bus is going to Tiananmen.) The preposition acts as a complement.

连词 Conjunctions

连词连接词组句子表示并列因果条件假设语法关系连词表示并列”、“”、“”、“”、“”、“”。连词表示因果因为”、“所以因此”。连词表示条件只要”、“只有不管”。连词表示假设如果要是”。连词表示推论判断既然”、“这样那么”。连词表示转折虽然”、“但是”、“可是不过”。连词表示让步即使就是”。连词表示选择还是或者”。连词表示列举例如比如”。连词表示紧接相承接着”、“于是然后”。连词表示进一步甚至”、“至于”、“而且”。

Conjunctions connect two words, phrases, or sentences expressing coordination, cause and effect, circumstances, or conjecture. Conjunctions indicating coordination include 、and . Conjunctions indicating cause and effect include 因为所以、and 因此. Conjunctions indicating circumstances include 只要只有、and 不管. Conjunctions indicating conjecture include 如果 and 要是. Conjunctions indicating inference include 既然这样、and 那么. Conjunctions indicating transition include 虽然但是可是、and 不过 Conjunctions indicating concession include 即使 and 就是. Conjunctions indicating an alternative include 还是 and 或者. Conjunctions indicating an enumeration include 例如 and 比如. Conjunctions indicating succession include 接着于是、and 然后. Conjunctions indicating progression include 甚至至于、and 而且.

例如

  1. 工人干部工作认真连词连接名词
  2. 领导讨论并且通过条款连词并且连接动词
  3. 排球还是足球连词还是连接词组
  4. 如果连词如果连接句子

Examples

  1. 工人干部工作认真。 (Workers and leader have all been working very dilligently.) The conjunciton is used to connect two nouns.
  2. 领导讨论并且通过条款。 (Party leaders discussed and passed two clauses.) The conjunction 并且 is used to connect two verbs.
  3. 排球还是足球? (Would you like to play volley ball or play soccer?) Conjunction 还是 is used to connect two phrases.
  4. 如果。 (If you cannot drive then catch a bus.) The conjunction 如果 is used to connect two sentences.

有一些连词经常配合使用

  1. 因为所以明天
  2. 现在虽然冬天但是

Some conjunctions are used in matching pairs.

  1. 因为所以明天。(Because I am busy, I will not go tomorrow.)
  2. 现在虽然冬天但是。(Even though is is winter at present, it is actually not cold.)

连接词组,“一般最后词组之前可以顿号“、”代表连词”。例如:“今天”。

When using to join more than two words or phrases it can be placed before the last word or phrase. The serial comma “、” can be used to represent the conjunction . For example, 今天

助词 Particles

助词词组句子后面表示各种附加意义语法关系语气助词没有实在意义助词轻声

Particles are added to words, phrases, or sentences to express supplementary meaning, grammatical relations, or mood. Particles do not have an independent meaning. Particles are spoken in the neutral tone.

结构助词词组后面表示语法关系结构助词”(de)、“”(de)”(de)。结构助词只能定语后边比如:“衣服漂亮”。“只能状语后边例如:“刻苦学习”。“专门动词形容词后面补语前边例如:“”。

Structural particles are added to words or phrases to express a grammatical relation. The structural particles are and . The structural particle can only be placed after an attributive modifier. For example, 衣服漂亮。 (Her clothes are beautiful.) can only be placed after an adverbial adjunct. For example, 刻苦学习。 (She studies hard.) must be placed after a verb or adjective and before a complement. For example, 。(She runs fast.)

动态助词动词后面表示附加意义动态助词”(le)、“”(zhe)”(guo)。但是不是所有动词可以附加”。

Aspectual particles are placed after verbs to indicate a supplementary meaning. The aspectual particles are (le),(zhe)and (guo). However, not all verb can be followed by and .

表示动作行为时间进行处于状态状态持续例如:

  1. 小提琴。(动作正在进行。)
  2. 。(状态持续。)
  3. 我们聊天。(处于状态

incidates that an action is in progress or in a particular state at a certain time or that a particular state continues. For example,

  1. 小提琴。 She is playing the violin. (The action is in progress.)
  2. 。 The door is open. (The state is continuing.)
  3. 我们聊天。 We are sitting down chatting. (in a certain state)

动态助词动词后面表示动作已经完成例如:“”。

When the particle follow a verb it indicates that an action has been completed. For example, 。 (I bought a book.)

动态助词动词后面表示动作已经过去比如:“美国没有?”

The aspectual particle is placed after a verb to indicate that the action happened in the past. For example, 美国没有? (Have you ever been to the United States?)

语气助词句子末尾表示各种语气语气助词”(ma)、“”(ne)、“”(ba)、“”(le)、“”(a)。

Modal particles are placed at the end of a sentence to express a mood. The modal particles are (ma),(ne),(ba),(le),(a).

语气动词表示疑问例如:“机场饭店?”

The modal particle indicates a question. For example, 机场饭店? (Is the airport far from the hotel?)

语气动词下边用途

  1. 可以正反疑问末尾表示不肯语气例如:“?”
  2. 可以疑问代词末尾表示猜测语气例如:“错误?”
  3. 选择问句表示疑问语气例如:“学科还是文学?”
  4. 可以名词代词后面构成问句例如:“现在我们?”
  5. 可以陈述表示动作或者情况继续比如:“那么没有决定”。

The modal particle has the following uses

  1. can be placed at the end of an affirmative / negative question to indicate uncertainty. For example,
  2. can be placed at the tail of a sentence with an interrogative pronoun to indicate conjecture. For example, 错误
  3. can be used in a question with an alternative to indicate a tone of interrogation. For example, 学科还是文学? (Are you studying science or are you studying arts?)
  4. can be appended to a noun or pronoun to ask a one-member question. For example, 现在我们? (We are going home. And you?)
  5. can be used at the end of a declaritive sentence to indicate that an action or condition is still continuing. For example, 那么没有决定。(Not so fast. I haven't made up my mind yet.)

语气助词下面作用:

  1. 可以陈述表示提议商量命令请求例如:“琢磨琢磨!”
  2. 可以陈述句表示同意例如:“”。
  3. 可以陈述句末尾表示估计完全肯定例如:“?”

The modal particle has the uses listed below.

  1. can be used at the end of a declarative sentence to express a proposal, consultation, command, or request. For example, 琢磨琢磨! (I suggest you reconsider carefully!)
  2. can be used at the end of a statement to indicate agreement. For example, 。 (Very well then. I will go first.)
  3. may be used at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate estimation or some uncertainty. For example, ? (Did you forget?)

语气助词下边用途

  1. 可以句子末尾表示感叹例如:“孩子礼貌!”
  2. 可以句子末尾表示催促嘱咐例如:“!”
  3. 可以选择问句正反问句疑问代词文具末尾表示疑问例如:“还是?”

The modal particle has the following uses:

  1. may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate exclamation. For example, 孩子礼貌!(This child is so polite!)
  2. can be used at the end of a sentence to urge or exhort. For example, ! (Think carefully!)
  3. can be used at the end of an alternative style question, a affirmative-negative question, or a question with an interrogative pronoun to indicate an interrogative tone. For example, 还是? (Are you going to catch a bus or [wave down] a taxi?)

语气助词下面用途

  1. 可以句子末尾表示出现情况例如:“外边”。
  2. 可以句子末尾表示提醒劝告催促

The structural particle has the following uses.

  1. can be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a newly emerged condition. For example, 外边。 (It has started to rain outside.)
  2. may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a reminder, advice, or urging.

语气助词只能陈述句末尾构成疑问例如:“翻译?”

The modal particle can only be used at the end of a declarative sentence to form a question. 翻译? (Are you a translator?)

叹词 Interjections

叹词表示感叹或者呼唤应答比如:“” (wèi)、“”(èn)、“”(à)、“哎呀”(āiyā)、“”(ō)、(ó)。叹词一般句子前面但是充当句子成分例如

Interjections express an exclamation, a call, or a response. For example, (wèi)、(èn)、(à)、哎呀(āiyā)、”(ō)、and (ó). Interjections are most often used at the start of a sentence but do not act as an element of the sentence. For example,

  1. ? [Hello. Are you Xiao Wang?] (电话表示呼唤)(Making a telephone, expressing a greeting.)
  2. 。 [Yes. I am Xiao Wang.] (表示答应)[Expressing a response]
  3. 哎呀衣服湿。 [Oh my! My clothes are wet.] (表示惊讶)(Expressing surprise)
  4. 美丽风景。[Ah! What a beautiful scene.] (表示赞叹) (Expressing admiration)
  5. 马上。 [OK! I will go right away.] (表示答应) (Indicating a response)
  6. 。 [Oh! My mistake.] (表示领会) (Expressing realization)
  7. 原来。 [Oh! It was you all along.] (表示了解) (Expressing understanding)

象声词 Onomatopes

象声词模拟表示物体声音例如

An onomatope imitates the sound of a thing or action. Examples:

  1. 哗哗流水) (The sound of flowing water)
  2. 扑通东西声音) (The sound of an object falling into water)
  3. 乒乓枪声乒乓球声音) (The sound of bouncing objects or gunfire)
  4. 呼呼声音) (The sound of the wind)
  5. 轰隆机器) (The sound of thunder, machinery, or artillery)
  6. 叮当金属碰撞声音) (Clink of metal objects)
  7. 哈哈笑声) (The sound of laughter)

词组

Next: Phrases


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