Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

词组 Phrases

词组按照一定语法关系组合起来常见词组种类

Phrases are composed of words organized according to definite grammatical relations. Here are some commonly used types of phrases:

  1. 主谓词组 Subject-predicate phrase
  2. 动宾词组 Verb-object phrase
  3. 联合词组 Coordinative phrase
  4. 偏正词组 Endocentric phrase
  5. 数量词组 Numeral-measure phrase
  6. 补充词组 Complementary word phrase
  7. 方位词组 Locality phrase
  8. 同位词组 Appositive phrase
  9. 固定词组 Set phrase
  10. 介词词组 Prepositional phrase
  11. 词组 The phrase

主谓词组 Subject-Predicate Phrases

主谓词组按照陈述陈述关系组合起来例如

A subject-predicate phrase combines the constituents in a subject-predicate relation. For example,

  1. 头发 [hair is short] (“头发,“) (头发 is the subject is the predicate)
  2. [he writes] (“,“) (”is the subject, is the predicate)

词组前边”,后边”。“陈述对象经常名词代词。“陈述经常动词形容词。“之间不用任何虚词连接

In a subject-predicate sentence the subject is first and the predicate is second. The subject is the object of the statement and is often a noun or pronoun. The predicate makes a statement about the subject and is usually a verb or adjective. No function words are used between the subject and predicate.

动宾词组 Verb-Object Phrases

动宾词组按照支配支配关系组合起来例如

In a verb-object phrase the constituents are arranged in a verb-object relation. For example,

  1. [to drink water] (“动词,“宾语) ( is the verb and is the object)
  2. [to write a character] (“动词,“宾语) ( is the verb and is the object)

动词一定前边动宾词组词序固定前边及物动词表示动作行为

The verb always comes first. The order in a verb-object phrase is fixed. The first word is a transitive verb, expressing an action or behavior.

联合词组 Coordinative Phrases

联合词组或者以上同类词组起来表示并列关系例如

A coordinative phrase is formed by two or more words or phrases of the same type to express a coordinative relation. For example,

  1. [You and me] (“”、“代词) (“”、“” are both pronouns)
  2. 小心认真 [careful and serious] (“小心”、“认真形容词)(“小心”、“认真” are both adjectives)

联合词组之间可以连词可以顿号“、”表示之间联合关系以上联合连词最后前边例如:

The terms in a coordinative phrase may be separated by conjunction. The serial comma “、” can also be used to separate words in in a coordinative phrase. When more than two words are joined, a conjunction is placed before the last one. For example,

        哥哥姐姐大学。(My older brother, older sister, and I all go to university.)
      

联合词组构成具有用途

A coordinative phrase has the same uses as the constituent parts that it is made from.

偏正词组 Endocentric Phrases

偏正词组按照修饰限制修饰限制关系组合起来偏正词组可以名词偏正词组动词形容词偏正词组名词偏正词组部分名词例如:“热带森林”。这个句子热带”,“森林”。

In an endocentric phrase the constituents are combined such that the first one decorates or limits the second. Endocentric phrases can be divided into two kinds: nominal endocentric phrases and endocentric phrase where the second constituent is either a verb or an adjective. In a nominal endocentric phrase the second part is a noun. For example, 热带森林. In this sentence, 热带 is the first part and 森林, the second part is a noun.

动词形容词偏正词组就是部分动词形容词例如详细讨论词组,“详细”,“讨论动词漂亮词组,“漂亮形容词

In a verbal or adjectival endocentric phrase the second part is either a verb or an adjective. For example, in the phrase 详细讨论讨论 [to discuss in detail], the latter part is a verb. In the phrase 漂亮 (very beautiful) the word 漂亮 [beautiful] is an adjective.

有时偏正词组虚词连接例如

Sometimes a function word is used to connect the two parts of an endocentric phrase. For example,

  1. 安静地方 [a quiet place]
  2. 严肃 [to speak sternly]
  3. 学校 [your school]

数量词组 Numeral-Measure Word Phrases

数量词组数词量词组合数量词组数词名量词构成例如

A numeral-measure word phrase combines a numeral and a measure word into a phrase. One kind of numeral-measure word phrase combines a numeral and a nominal measure word. For example,

  1. (one book)
  2. (two units)
  3. (three vehicles)

数量词组数词动量词构成例如

Another kind of numeral-measure word phrase a numeral and a verbal measure word. For example,

  1. (one trip)
  2. (two times)
  3. (three times)

数量词组名词之间一般助词”。但是名词代表事物量词一致搭配数量词组后面助词”。例如

In general, the particle is not used between a numeral-measure word phrase and a noun. However, when then measure word and the noun are not the usual match the particle should be used. For example,

  1. 公斤 [one kilogram of books]
  2. 时间 [the duration of a game]

有的名词可以数词后面临时量词表示数量例如

Some nouns can be used after the numeral to act temperarily as measure word, expressing a large quantity. For example,

  1. 桌子 [a table full of books]
  2. 屋子 [a room full of people]

数词构成数量词组宾语前边时候可以不用例如

When the numeral is used in a numeral-measure word phrase in front of the object then it can be ommitted. For example,

  1. —> [buy a book]
  2. —> [drink a glass of water]

补充词组 Complementary Phrases

补充词组按照补充关系组合起来补充词组词组词组词组动词补充成分组成例如

A complementary phrase is one formed by a complementary relationship. There are two kinds of complementary phrases: verb-complement phrases and adjective-complement phrases. A verb-complement phrase is composed of a verb and a complement senentence element. For example,

  1. 干净 [clean thoroughly] (“动词,“干净补充成分) ( is the verb and 干净 is the complement)
  2. [to choose from a selection] (“动词,“补充成分) ( is the verb and is the complement)

词组形容词补充成分组成例如

The adjective-complement phrase is composed of an adjective and a complement. For example,

  1. 极了 [very tired] (“形容词,“补充) ( is the adjective and is the complement)
  2. 一些 [a little more] (“形容词,“一些补充成分) ( is the adjective and 一些 is the complement)

有时补充词组中心语补充成分之间结构助词连接例如

Sometimes the structural particle or must be placed between the modified word and the complement. For example,

  1. [to go to sleep late]
  2. [to wake up early]
  3. [cannot walk]
  4. [to repair inadequately]

方位词组 Phrases of Locality

方位词方位词中心语构成表示处所时间数量例如

A phrase of locality is one where a noun of locality of modified to indicate place, time, or quantity. For example,

  1. [in a room]
  2. [the road side]
  3. 夜里 [in the night]
  4. [a few days ago]
  5. 以上 [over ten years old]

前面修饰后面方位词方位词部分可以名词代词动词词组

The noun of locality is preceded by a modifier. The modifier can be a noun, pronoun, verb, or phrase.

同位词组 Appositive Phrases

同位词组从不角度指出个人事物互相说明

A appositive phrase combines two words referring to the same person or thing from different perspectives.

  1. 列宁同志 [comrade Lenin]
  2. 自己 [him alone]
  3. 他们 [both of them]
  4. 他们夫妻 [both of them, husband and wife]
  5. 奥巴马总统 [President Obama]

固定词组 Set Phrases

固定词组某些词组固定格式表示特定概念专名术语成语例如

A set phrase expresses a specific concept using fixed constituents. These are often proper nouns, technical terms, and idioms. For example,

  1. 人民 大会 [Great Hall of the People]
  2. 北京 语言 学院 [Beijing Institute of Languages]
  3. [innumerable]
  4. [all directions]
  5. 个人 电脑 [personal computer]
  6. 文本 标记 语言 [Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)]

介词结构 Prepositional Phrases

介词结构介宾词组介词宾语构成介词结构可以表示动作方向时间处所目的对象方式原因被动处置比较排除等等例如

A prepositional phrase is one where a preposition carries an object. A prepositional phrase can express the direction, time, place, goal, object, manner, reason, passive nature, handling, comparison, and exclusion of an action. For example,

  1. [to face towards the south — direction] (“介词,“宾语) ( is the preposition, is the object)
  2. [from three o'clock — time]
  3. 广场 [in the plaza — place]
  4. 方便 [for convenience — goal]
  5. 天安门 [to Tiananmen — object]
  6. 按照规定 [according to the rules — manner]
  7. 由于总统 [for the new president — reason]
  8. 洪水 [caught by a flood — passive nature]
  9. [to handle this affair — handling]
  10. 人家 [compared to others — comparison]
  11. [except for this — exclusion]

介词结构主要用途句子充当状语例如

The main use of prepositional phrases is to act as an adverbial adjunct in sentences. For example,

  1. 在北大学习。 [He studies at Beijing University.]
  2. 老师给我们讲课。 [The teacher will give a lecture.]
  3. 对客人热情。 [He is very friendly to customers.]

常见介词结构 Common Prepositional Patterns

可以表示动作进行状态存在场所。“可以表示范围方面,“之间表示抽象名词动词例如

The form can express the place where an action takes place or a condition exists. The form can also be used to indicate scope or aspect when an abstract noun or verb is used in between. For example,

  1. 历史不少。 [This is not uncommon throughout history.]
  2. 宣布。 [He announced it in the meeting.]

可以表示具体场所或者可以表示条件情况例如

The form can indicate a concrete position or it can indicate a condition or situation. For example,

  1. 老师帮助我们进步。 [With the help of our teachers we have all made great progress.]
  2. 家长鼓励他们孩子这个机会。 [With the encouragement of his parents, their child was able to obtain this opportunity.]

结构 Phrases

结构结构助词实词或者词组后面组合词组例如

A phrase is one where the structural particle is attached to a notional word or phrase. For example,

  1. 报纸人家的。 [This newspaper belongs to someone else.] (“代词后面) ( is attached to a pronoun)
  2. 弟弟的。 [This bed is my younger brother's.] (“名词后面) ( is attached to a noun)
  3. 毛衣红的。 [This sweater is red.] (“形容词后面) ( is after an adjective)
  4. 参加的个人。 [There are ten people attending.] (“动词后面) ( is after a verb)
  5. 参加会议的。 [All the people attending the meeting are here.] (“动宾词组后面) ( is after a verb-object phrase)

结构句子用途相当名词

A phrases acts like a noun in a sentence.

句子成分

Next: Sentence Elements