Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

动作状态 Aspects of an Action


The states of an action include progression, continuation, and completion. In Chinese adverbs and aspectual particles are often used to express the state of an action.

动作进行 The Progressive Aspect of an Action


The adverbs 、and 正在 placed in front of a predicate verb indicate that the action is in progress. The modal particle may also be added to the end of the sentence. For example,

  1. 正在处理。 (I am taking care of it for you right now.)

    处理动作正在进行。 (The action of 处理 is progressing.)

  2. 休息。 (I am resting.)

    动作休息进行。 (The action of resting is in progress:)

  3. 睡觉。 (He is sleeping.)

    语气助词表示睡觉动作进行需要状语。 (The modal particle expresses that the action 睡觉 is in progress. An adverbial adjunct is not needed.)

  4. 睡觉。 (He is not asleep, he is reading a book.)

    否定副词”。 (The negative form uses the adverb .)

动作持续 The Continuous Aspect of an Action


The aspectual particle expresses that an action or the result of an action is continuing. The state of an action or the result of an action can be in the past, present, or future. For example,

  1. 。 (The door is open.)

    动作已经完成但是状态持续。 (The action of the door opening has already been completed but the state still continues.)

  2. 笔记本。 (He brought a notebook.)

    动态助词宾语笔记本前边。 (The aspectual particle is placed before the object 笔记本.)

  3. 我们时候。 (Last night when we arrived it was still open.)

    时间表示事情已经过去。 (The use of indicates that the condition is in the past.)

动作完成 The Perfect Aspect of an Action


When added after a predicate verb, the aspectual particle expresses the completion of an action. A completed action may take place in the past, present, or future and a time word or phrase is used to express this. For example,

  1. 成功。 (I succeeded.)

    动态助词谓语动词成功后边。 (The aspectual particle is added after the predicate verb 成功.)

  2. 大使馆。 (I have arrived at the embassy.)

    动态助词谓语动词后边宾语大使馆前边。 (The aspectual particle is placed after the predicate verb and before the object 大使馆.)

  3. 火车。 (I did not buy a train ticket.)

    否定副词”。 (The negative form uses the adverb .)

  4. 。 (I washed my hands.)

    这个句子语气助词宾语简单而且语气助词所以动词后面动态助词。 (In this sentence is a modal particle. The object is simple and the sentence ends with the modal particle so the aspectual particle after the verb is left out.

  5. 机票。 (I bought the plane tickets.)

    动态助词结果补语后边。 (The aspectual particle should be placed after the complement of result .)

  6. 没有? (Did you buy some?)

    可以没有提问。 (没有 can be added to raise a question.)

将来动作 Future Actions


The adverb and the modal particle can be used to describe an action that will happen in the future. The adverb functions as an adverbial adjunct. The negative form uses the combination

  1. 老板退休。 (Our boss is going to retire soon.)

  2. 我们孩子明年大学。 (Next year our child will take the college entrance exam.)

  3. 还没毕业。 (I have not graduated yet.)

  4. 他们结婚。 (They will get married soon.)

    副词时候可以省去”。副词时候用具时间。 (If the adverb is used then can be omitted. Also, when using the adverb a concrete time cannot be stated.)

过去动作 Past Actions


To describe an experience in the past the aspectual particle can be added after the predicate verb. For example,

  1. 上海。 (I have been to Shanghai.)

    宾语上海动态助词后边。 (The object 上海 is placed after the aspectual particle .

  2. 曾经物理学。 (I studied physics before.)

    谓语动词前面可以副词曾经”。 (The adverb 曾经 can also be used before the predicate verb.)

  3. 首都博物馆。 (I have never been to the Beijing Museum.)

    否定副词”。 (Use the adverb for the negative form.)

Next: 用特殊动词谓语的句子 Sentences using Special Verbal Predicates