Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

句子成分 Sentence Elements

句子语言独立表达意思最小单位句子词组可以按照它们作用划分句子成分汉语句子成分

Sentences are the smallest units in language that can independently express at idea. Words and phrases in sentences can be divided into sentence elements based on their use. There are six kinds of sentence elements in Chinese:

  1. 主语 Subject
  2. 谓语 Predicate
  3. 宾语 Object
  4. 定语 Attributive
  5. 状语 Adverbial adjunct
  6. 补语 Complement

主语 The Subject

汉语大多句子主语成分谓语成分组成名词代词动词形容词数词量词重叠词组可以充当主语比如

In Chinese the most common form of composing a sentence is using subject and predicate sentence elements. Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, duplicated measure words, and phrases can all act as subjects. For example,

  1. 老师讲话。(The teacher is speaking) “老师主语名词。(老师 is the subject and is a noun.)
  2. 闹腾。(She is very disruptive.) “主语代词。( is the subject and is a pronoun.)
  3. 走路健康。(Walking is healthy) “走路主语动词。(走路 is the subject and is also a verb.)
  4. 悲观。(Pessimism is bad) “悲观主语形容词。(悲观 is the subject and is an adjective.)
  5. 运气。(Seven is lucky.) “主语数词。( is the subject and is also a numeral.)
  6. 聪明。(They are all very clever.) “主语重叠数词。( is the subject and is a duplicated measure word.)
  7. 自己。(I will go myself.) “自己主语词组。(自己 is the subject and is a phrase.)

主语成分一般句子前边表示陈述对象

The subject is usually at the start of the sentence, expressing the target of a statement.

谓语 The Predicate

谓语成分陈述主语谓语一般主语后边各种实词大多数词组可以充当谓语

The predicate makes a statement about the subject. The predicate is usually placed after the subject. All kinds of notional words and most types of phrases can act as the subject.

  1. 自己。(I will go myself.) 动词谓语。 (The verb is the predicate.)
  2. 。 (It is light already.) 形容词谓语。(The adjectitve is the predicate.)
  3. 今天晴天。(The weather is clear today.) 名词晴天谓语。(The noun 晴天 is the predicate.)
  4. 二十。(She is twenty years old.)数词二十谓语。(The number twenty is the predicate.)
  5. 现在状态怎么样?(What is the status now?)代词怎么样谓语。(The pronoun 怎么样 is the predicate.)
  6. 。(A cup of tea is five yuan.) 词组谓语。(The phrase is the predicate.)

谓语后边可以宾语比如

The predicate can be followed by objects. For example,

  1. 。(He is riding in a car.)宾语 (One object)
  2. 。(He delivered the tickets to me.) 宾语 (Two objects)

形容词谓语前边平常副词”,否则比较意思

When an adjective acts as the predicate the adverb is usually used. Otherwise, a comparison is implied.

  1. 毛衣。(This sweater is big.)
  2. 毛衣合适)This sweater is big (that one is the right size)

宾语 The Object

宾语动词谓语连带句子成分表示动作对象达到处所动作工具产生结果比如

An object is appended to a verb acting as the subject to indicate the target of an action, the place arrived at by an action, the tools used in an action, or the result of an action. For example,

  1. 咱们电影。(We are watching a movie.)“电影宾语 (电影 is the object.)
  2. 他们北京。(The are going to Beijing.) “北京宾语。(北京 is the object.)

宾语平时动词谓语后边大多数宾语名词代词但是名词代词动词形容词数词词组可以充当宾语比如

The object is usually placed after a verb serving as a predicate. The object is most often a noun or pronoun. However, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, and phrases can all act as the object. For example,

  1. 我们明天电影。(We will see a movie tomorrow.)名词电影宾语 (The noun 电影 is the object)
  2. 答应。(You must promise me.) 代词宾语。(The pronoun is the object)
  3. 锻炼。(He likes to excercize.) 动词锻炼宾语。(The verb 动词 is the object)
  4. 注意安全 (Be safe)
  5. 购物中心超市各种商店。(The shopping center has a supermarket and all kinds of shops.) 词组超市各种商店宾语。 (The phrase 超市各种商店 is the object.)

及物动词可以宾语可以宾语及物动词宾语宾语比如

A transitive verb can either carry an object or go without one. When a transitive verb carries one object it is called a single object. For example,

  1. 我们抄写。 (We are transcribing.) 及物动词抄写宾语。(The transitive verb 抄写, to transcribe, does not carry an object.)
  2. 我们抄写。 (We are transcribing a sutra.) 及物动词抄写宾语”,宾语。 (The transitive verb 抄写 carries the object , which is a single object.

一些及物动词可以宾语宾语前边宾语间接宾语后边宾语直接宾语比如

Some transitive verbs can take two object and this is called a double object. The first object is called an indirect object and the second is called a direct object. For example,

  1. 老师我们汉语。 (The teacher is teaching us Chinese.) 代词我们间接宾语名词汉语直接宾语。(The pronoun 我们 is an indirect object and the noun 汉语 Chinese is a direct object.)
  2. 明天邮件。 (I will send him an email tomorrow.) 代词间接宾语名词邮件直接宾语。 (The pronoun is an indirect object and the noun 邮件 is a direct object.

为了强调比较简化句子宾语可以动词宾语前边这样宾语前置宾语比如

For the purpose of emphasis, comparison, or simplification the object may be placed in front of a verb acting as a predicate. This is called a fronted object. For example,

  1. 这些数学。(I have finished all of these math problems.) 宾语数学主语后边谓语前边。(The object 数学 is after the subject and before the predicate .)
  2. 这些数学。 (I have finished all of these math problems.) 宾语数学主语谓语前边。(The object 数学 is before both the subject and the predicate .)

状语 Adverbial Adjuncts

状语修饰限制谓语词组

Adverbial adjuncts are words or phrases that decorate or limit the predicate.

  1. 状语动词谓语前边 (An adverbial adjunct located before a verb predicate)
    1. 今天银行。 (I went to the bank today.)
    2. 行李。 (I only have one piece of luggage.)
  2. 状语形容词谓语前边 (An adverbial adjunct located before an adjective predicate)
    1. 孩子高兴 (The child is very happy.)

状语必需中心语前边词组可以充当状语结构助词状语后边副词基本作用充当状语比如

The adverbial adjunct must be placed before the word modified. All kinds of words and phrases may act as an adverbial adjunct. The structural particle is often placed after an adverbial adjunct. The basic purpose of adverbs is to act as adverbial adjuncts. For example,

  1. 非常高兴。 (He is very happy.) 副词状语非常修饰谓语高兴”。 (The adverb 非常 acting as the adverbial adjunct modifies the predicate 高兴.)
  2. 经常锻炼身体。 (He frequently exercises.) 副词状语经常修饰动词锻炼”。 (The adverb 经常 acting as an adverbial adjunct modifies the verb 锻炼.)

介词结构主要作用充当状语比如

The main purpose of prepositional phrase is also to act as adverbial adjuncts. For example,

  1. 咱们从东边。 (We will climb the mountain from the east side.) 介词结构东边修饰动词”。 (The prepositional phrase 东边 modifies the verb .)

名词助动词动词形容词代词联合词组主谓词组偏正词组数量词组方位词组固定词组可以充当状语

Nouns, auxiliary verbs, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, coordinative phrases, subject-predicate phrases, endocentric phrases, numeral-measure word phrases, phrases of locality, and set phrases can all act as adverbial adjuncts.

动词双音形容词联合词组主谓词组重叠数量词组固定词组充当状语一般需要助词”。比如

When verbs, dissyllabic adjectives, coordinative phrases, subject-predicate phrases, duplicated numeral-measure word phrases, and set phrases act as the adverbial adjunct ordinarily the particle must be used. For example,

  1. 注意。 (Please look carefully). 动词注意充当状语。 (The verb 注意 acts as the adverbial adjunct.)
  2. 我们仔细。 (We looked carefully.) 双音形容词仔细充当状语。 (The dissyllabic adjective 仔细 acts at the adverbial adjunct.)

副词介词结构表示时间场所名词单音形容词代词充当状语一般”。比如

When adverbs, prepositional phrases, nouns expressing time or place, monosyllabic adjectives, and pronouns act as an adverbial adjunct, in general, should not be used. For example,

  1. 喜欢冰淇淋。 (He really likes ice cream.) 副词充当状语。 (Adverb acts as the adverbial addjunct.)
  2. 东边喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.) 表示处所名词东边充当状语。 (The noun of locality 东边 acts as the adverbial adjunct.

补语 Complements

补语谓语后边词组补充说明动作经历时间可能趋向结果程度数量比如

A complement is a word or phrase placed after the predicate that adds information about the action experienced including time, probably, direction, outcome, degree, or quantity. For example,

  1. 两次。 (I said that two times.) 补语动词谓语后边。 (The complement is located after the verb predicate .)
  2. 一点。 (He is a little taller.) 补语形容词谓语后边。 (The complement is placed after the adjective predicate .)

一般形容词动词数量补充词组充当补语中心语补语中间经常结构助词”。补语

Usually, an adjective, verb, number, or complementary phrase acts as the complement. The structural particle is often placed between the modified word and the complement. There are five types of complements:

  1. 结果补语 Complement of Result

    结果补语动词谓语后边表示动词结果句子成分比如

    A complement of result is a sentence element placed after a verb predicate to indicate the result of the verb. For example,

    1. 。 (I saw all the people in my family.) 结果补语表示动词谓语结果。 (The complement of result indicates the result of the verb predicate .)
    2. 。 (I do not understand.) 结果补语表示动词谓语结果。 (The complement of result indicates the result of the verb predicate .)

    动词形容词介词结构可以充当结果补语比如

    Verbs, adjectives, and prepositional phrases can act as complements of result. For example:

    1. 论文。 (I finished writing the thesis.) 动词充当结果补语。 (The verb acts as the complement of result.)
    2. 准备。 (I am properly prepared.) 形容词充当结果补语。 (The adjectvie acts as the complement of result.)
    3. 火车往北京。 (The train is going to Beijing.) 介词结构北京充当结果补语。 (The prepositional phrase 北京 acts as the complement of result.)

    结果补语否定动词前边”。动词补语中间任何词组否则意思改变比如

    The negative form of a complement of result uses in front of the verb. No word or phrase should be placed in between the verb and the complment, otherwise, the meaning will change. For example:

    1. 看见。 (I did not see it.) 不见因为意思看见。 (You cannot say, 不见 because the meaning is that I cannot see it.)
    2. 。 (I did not understand.) 因为意思。 (You cannot say because the meaning is that I do not understand.)
  2. 程度补语 Complement of Degree

    程度补语谓语后边补充说明动作程度词组比如

    Complements of degree are placed after the predicate to indicate the degree of the action. For example:

    1. 。 (He writes well.) 形容词充当程度补语说明动词谓语情态。 (The adjective acts as the complement of degree expressing the manner that the verb predicate was performed.)
    2. 很快。 (He runs very quickly.) 偏正词组充当程度补语说明动词谓语情态。 (The endocentric phrase acts as the complement of degree describing the manner of the verb predicate .)

    中心语程度补语之间需要结构助词”。否定形式副词结构助词后边比如

    The structural particle must be used between the modified word and the complement of degree. The negative is formed by placing the adverb after the structural particle . For example,

    1. 。 (He does not write well.)
    2. 。 (He does not run quickly.)

    形容词代词副词偏正词组联合词组补充词组动宾词组主谓词组可以充当程度补语比如

    Adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, endocentric phrases, coordinative phrases, complementary word phrases, verb-object phrases, and subject-predicate phrases can all act as complements of degree. For example<

    1. 。 (He has grown up tall.) 形容词充当程度补语。 (The adjective acts as the complement of degree.)
    2. 怎么样? (How is her singing?) 代词怎么样充当程度补语。 (The pronoun 怎么样 acts as the complement of degree.)
    3. 极了。 (He is very good.) 副词极了充当程度补语。 (The adverb 极了 acts as the complement of degree.)
    4. 太认真。 (He studies so earnestly.) 偏正词组认真充当程度补语。 (The endocentric phrase 认真 acts as the complement of degree.)

    如果谓语后边同时宾语程度补语重复动词程度补语重复动词后边比如

    If a predicate takes both an object and a complement of degree at the same time then the verb should be repeated with the complement of degree being placed after the second instance of the verb. For example,

    1. 回答问题回答得很准确。 (He answered the question very accurately.) 动词谓语回答重复。 (The verb predicate 回答 is repeated.)
    2. 得很。 (He hit the ball a really long way.) 动词谓语重复。 (The verb predicate is repeated.)

    副词极了特殊助词”。比如

    The adverb 极了 is a special case of a complement of degree that does not require the particle . For example,

    1. 天气极了。 (The weather is really hot.) 需要结构助词”。 (The structural particle is not needed.)
    2. 天气。 (The weather is really hot.) 需要结构助词”。 (The structural particle is needed.)
  3. 数量补语 Complement of quantity

    数量补语谓语后边说明动作行为次数时段长度高度词组补充说明动作次数数量补语动量补语表示动作时段数量补语时量补语表示高度长度数量补语名量补语比如

    A complement of quantity is a word or phrase that is placed after the predicate to indicate frequency, duration, or height, length, etc. A complement of quantity that expresses the frequency of an action is called a complement of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the duration of an action is called a duration of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the height, length, etc of an action is called a complement of nominal measure. For example,

    1. 两趟 (to go two times) 动量补语表示动作发生。 (The complement of frequency expresses how many times the action occurred.
    2. 三小时 (to talk for three hours) 时量补语小时表示动作时段。 (The complement of duration 小时 describes the duration of the action .)
    3. 一岁 (one year older) 名量补语表示形容词长度。 (The complement of nominal measure describes the duration of the adjective .)

    大多数数量补语数量词组充当数量补语谓语可以宾语比如

    Most often a numeral-measure word phrase acts as the complement of quantity. Predicates that have a complement of quantity can also take an object. For example,

    1. 三遍。 (I have read this book three times.) 宾语谓语前边。 (The subject is in front of the predicate .
    2. 中文一年。 (He studied Chinese for one year.) 宾语中文动词谓语后边谓语重复时量补语重复动词后边。 (The object 中文 occurs after the verb predicate , which is repeated. The complement of duration is placed after the repeated verb.
    3. 一年中文。 (He studied Chinese for one year.) 可以重复动词。 (It is also acceptable not to repeat the verb.)
    4. 昨天两趟商店。 (I went to the shop twice yesterday.) 带动补语动词谓语后边名词宾语商店动量补语后边。 (The noun object 商店 is placed after the complement of frequency of the verb .)
    5. 一次。 (I ran into him once.) 带动补语动词谓语后边代词宾语动量补语前边。 (The pronoun object is placed after the complement of frequency of the verb .)
  4. 趋向补语 Complement of Direction

    趋向补语谓语动词后边说明动作趋向词组趋向补语简单趋向补语符合趋向补语

    A complement of direction is placed after a predicate verb to express the direction of an action. There are two types of complement of direction: simple and compound.

    1. 简单趋向补语
      Simple complements of direction: and
    2. 符合趋向补语上来上去下来下去进来进去出来出去回来回去过来过去起来
      Compound complements of direction: 上来上去下来下去进来进去出来出去回来回去过来过去起来

    趋向补语”、“补充说明方向说话比如

    The complements of direction and express the direction of the action relative to the speaker. For example,

    1. 。 (I took it.) “简单趋向补语,“谓语动词 is a simple complement of direction and is the predicate verb.
    2. 下去。 (He jumped down.) “下去复合趋向补语,“谓语动词下去 is a compount complement of direction and is the verb predicate.

    表示处所方位宾语必须谓语动词趋向补语之间表示事物宾语可以简单趋向补语前边后边比如

    An object referring to a place or position should be placed between the predicate verb and the complement of direction. An object referring to a person or thing can either be placed before or after a simple complement of direction. For example,

    1. 办公室。 (He went back to the office.) 表示处所宾语办公室谓语动词趋向补语之间。 (The object 办公室, expressing a location, is placed in between the predicate verb and the complement of direction .)
    2. 朋友。 (He brought a friend along.) 表示宾语朋友简单趋向补语前边。 (The object 朋友, referring to people, is placed after the simple complement of direction .)
  5. 可能补语 Complement of Potentiality

    可能补语谓语动词后边表示动作达到结果情况词组

    A potential complement is a word or phrase, placed after a predicate verb, that expresses whether an action can achieve a certain state.

    谓语动词(predicate verb) + “”  + 可能补语(potential complement)

    动词形容词可以可能补语比如

    Verbs and adjectives can act as potential complements. For example,

    1. ? (Can you open it?) 动词充当可能补语。 (The verb acts as the potential complement.)
    2. 。 (I can't open it.) 否定 (Negative form)
    3. 清楚。 (You explained that clearly.) 形容词清楚充当可能补语。 (The adjective 清楚 acts as the potential complement.)

    动词”、“”、“常见可能补语比如

    The verbs 、and ” are frequently used as potential complements. For example,

    1. 。 (I can't move.) 可能补语表示力量。 (The potential complement expresses strength.
    2. 体育场。 (This stadium can seat ninety thousand people.) 可能补语表示足够空间容量。 (The potential complement expresses sufficient space or capacity.)
    3. 今天。 (I can come today.) 可能补语表示可能能力进行动作。 (The potential complement expresses the probability to be able to carry out an action.)

定语 The Attributive

定语修饰限制中心语词组中心语主语宾语比如

An attributive is a word or phrase that decorates or modifies another term. The modified word may be either the subject or object. For example,

  1. 朋友中国。 (My friend will go to China.) 代词定语主语朋友前边。(The pronoun is the attributive and is placed before the subject 朋友.)
  2. 那本。 (That book is mine). 定语主语前边。 (The attributive is before the subject.)
  3. 两本。 (He bought two books.) 数量词组定语宾语前边。 (The numeral-measure word phrase is the attributive and is before the object.)
  4. 昨天报纸。 (That is yesterday's newspaper.) 名词昨天定语宾语前边。 (The noun 昨天 is the attributive and is before the object.)

定语必须中心语前边实词词组可以充当定语定语后边经常结构助词”。上边例子有名代词数量词组充当定语下边其他词类

An attributive must be placed in front of the modified word. Any kind of notional word or phrase can act as an attributive. The structural particle is often placed after an attributive. In the examples above there are instances of a noun, a pronouns, and a numeral-measure word phrase acting as an attributive. Below are examples of other kinds of words acting as the attributive.

  1. 我们楼房房子。 (There are many empty apartments in our building.) 形容词充当定语(The adjective acts as the attributive.)
  2. 我们楼房。 (Our building has eight floors.) 数词充当定语。 (The numeral acts as the attributive.)
  3. 积极而可靠职工。 (He is a positive and reliable employee.) 联合词组积极可靠充当定语。 (The coordinative phrase 积极可靠 acts as the attributive.)

一些定语后面必须结构助词”,一些定语不可”,一些定语不用可以

Some attributives must be followed by the structural particle , some attributives cannot be followed by , and some may optionally be followed by .

下边情况不用”:

Don't use in the following circumstances:

  1. 定语名词表示或者事物性质 (When the attributive is a noun and describes a quality of a person or thing)
    1. 制定节日 (A designated holiday)
    2. 销售经理 (A sales manager)
  2. 定语名词固定组合 (the attributive is a noun in a set combination)
    1. 北京大学 (Peking University)
    2. 首都机场 (Beijing Airport)
  3. 定语代词表示亲属关系集体单位数词量词前边什么多少名词前边 (When the attributive is a pronoun: and it expresses a family relationship or an organizational unit; it is or and appears in front of a numeral or measure word; or it is 什么 or 多少 and appears in front of a noun)
    1. or (My mother)
    2. 单位 (My employer)
    3. 杯子 (This cup)
    4. 个人 (Those three people)
    5. 多少 (How much money?)
    6. 什么意思 (What do you mean?)
  4. 定语形容词单音双音固定词组 (When the attributive is an adjective: monosyllables and disyllables in set phrases in
    1. (A tall mountain)
    2. 紫禁 (The Forbidden City)
  5. 重叠量词 (Duplicated measure words)
    1. 门门课程 (Every class)
  6. 定语动词表示事物性质
    1. 开幕典礼 (Opening ceremony)
  7. 定语数量词组 (The attributive is a measure word phrase.)
    1. 一条 (A dog)

下边情况必须结构助词”:

The structural particle must be used in the situations below:

  1. 定语名词表示领属关系时间处所 (The attributive is a noun expression a possessive relation, time, or place
    1. 学生书包 (The student's school bag)
    2. 今年计划 (This year's plan)
    3. 前边 (The mountain ahead)
  2. 定语代词表示领属关系处所方式样式 (The attributive is a pronoun expressing a possessive relation, place, manner, or type)
    1. 书包 (Your backpack)
    2. 这里风景 (The scenery here)
    3. 那样方法 (That method)
    4. 这样动物 (This kind of animal)
  3. 定语形容词强调修饰单音修饰单音双音重叠格式 (Adjectives acting as attributives when emphasizing decoration of the modified word, dissyllables decorating monosyllables, duplicated forms)
    1. 深入了解 (a deep understanding)
    2. 幸福 (a happy person)
    3. 高高 (A very tall mountain)
  4. 定语动词 (Verbs acting as attributives)
    1. 辩论话题 (The subject debated)
  5. 定语联合词组 (Coordinative phrases acting as attributives)
    1. 北京和上海天气 (The weather in Beijing and Shanghai)
  6. 定语主谓词组 (Subject-predicate phrases acting as attributives)
    1. 专家用办法 (A method used by experts)
  7. 定语动宾词组 (Verb-object phrases acting as attributives)
    1. 看天坛旅游 (The tour groups visiting the Temple of Heaven)
  8. 定语偏正词组 (Endocentric phrases acting as attributives)
    1. 很快 (A really fast race car)
  9. 补充词组充当定语 (Complementary word phrases acting as attributives)
    1. 长一些 (A slightly longer road)
  10. 方位词组同位词组固定词组介词结构充当定语 (Phrases of locality, appositive phrases, set phrases, and prepositional phrase acting as an attributive)
    1. 我自己房子 (My own house)

下边情况不用可以

can be optionally used in the following situations:

  1. 双音代词充当定语修饰单音集体单位 (Dissyllabic pronouns acting as an attributive decorating monosyllabic collective units)
    1. 咱们 (Our team)
  2. 双音形容词充当定语修饰双音 (Dissyllabic adjectives acting as an attributive modifying another dissyllabic word)
    1. 幸福日子 (Joyful days)
  3. 名词数量词组表示数量 (Measure word phrases that borrow a noun to express the idea of a large number)
    1. 一层一层 (Layer upon layer of mountains
  4. 偏正词组”、“不少” (The endocentric phrases and 不少
    1. 很多矛盾 (Many contradictions)
    2. 不少 (A considerable amount of money)

Next: Simple Sentences