Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

句子用途 Sentence Use

陈述句 Declarative Sentences


Declarative sentences narrate an event or describe a point of view. They end in a period. For example,

  1. 地球。 (The Earth is big.)
  2. 他们足球。 (They are playing soccer.)

疑问句 Interrogative Sentences


Interrogative sentences raise a question and end in a question mark. For example,

  1. ? (Who is knocking on the door?)
  2. ? (How old are you?)
  3. ? (Are you full?)


There are seven types of interrogative sentence:

  1. 语气助词疑问句 (Questions that use the modal particle )

    陈述句语气助词”,陈述句词序比如: (Add the modal particle to the end of a declarative sentence. The word order of the declarative sentence does not change. For example)

    1. ? (Are you going to eat?)

    2. 美国? (Are you American?)

  2. 疑问代词疑问句 (Questions that use interrogative pronouns)

    疑问代词可以主语宾语谓语位置比如: (The interrogative pronoun can be placed in the location of the subject, the object, or the predicate. For example,)

    1. 加班? (Who is doing overtime?)

      疑问代词主语位置。 (The interrogative pronoun is placed at the position of the subject.)

    2. 哪里? (Where are you going?)

      疑问代词哪里宾语位置。 (The interrogative pronoun 哪里 is placed in the position of the object.)

    3. 怎么? (What is wrong with your car?)

      疑问代词怎么谓语位置。 (The interrogative pronoun 怎么 is placed in the location of the predicate.)

  3. 正反疑问句 (Affirmative-negative questions)

    正反疑问句并列谓语肯定否定形式比如: (Affirmative-negative questions place positive and negative forms of the predicate adjacent to each other. For example,)

    1. 上海? (Are you going to Shanghai?)

      主语谓语 + 谓语宾语 (Subject + predicate + + predicate + object)

    2. 足够没有? (Do you have enough money?)

      主语谓语宾语 + 谓语 (Subject + predicate + object + + predicate)

  4. 连词还是选择疑问句 (Questions using the conjunction 还是)

    疑问句连词还是并列情况要求答话选择。 (This kind of question poses several alternatives in conjunction and expects the person answering to make a choice.)

    1. 明天休息还是加班? (Are you resting or working overtime tomorrow?)

      主语谓语1 + “还是” + 谓语2 (Subject + predicate1 + 还是 + predicate2)

      这个疑问句谓语休息”、“加班什么。 (This question uses the two predicates 休息 and 加班 to ask what are you going to do?)

    2. 公寓还是别墅? (Do you live in an apartment or live in a house?)

      主语谓语1 + 宾语1 + “还是” + 谓语2 + 宾语2 (Subject + predicate1 + object1 + 还是 + predicate2 + object2)

      这个疑问句宾语公寓”、“别墅地点。 (This question uses the two objects 公寓 and 别墅 to ask where?)

    3. 他们还是我们? (A we going first or are they going first?)

      主语1 + 谓语1 + “还是” + 主语2 + 谓语2 (Subject1 + predicate1 + 还是 + subject2 + predicate2)

      这个疑问句主语他们”、“我们 (This question uses the two subjects 他们 and 我们 to ask who?)

    4. 咱们今天还是明天? (Are you going today or tomorrow?)

      主语1 + 状语1 + “还是” + 状语2 + 谓语2 ? (Subject1 + adverbial adjunct1 + predicate1 + 还是 + adverbial adjunct2 + predicate1)

      这个疑问句状语今天”、“明天时间。 (This question uses the two adverbial adjuncts 今天 and 明天 to ask when?)

  5. 不是疑问句 (Questions that use 不是)

    疑问句不是证实情况。“不是可以句子比如: (This kind of question uses 不是 to confirm a condition. 不是 can be used in all kinds of sentences. For example,

    1. 不是明天美国? (Are you going to the United States tomorrow?)

      主语 + “不是” + 谓语? (Subject + 不是 + predicate)

      不是一般主语谓语中间。 (不是 is usually placed between the subject and the predicate.)

    2. 不是明天美国? (Are you going to the United States tomorrow?)

      不是” + 主语谓语宾语? (不是 + subject + predicate + object?)

      有时不是。 (Sometimes 不是 is placed at the beginning or end of the sentence.)

    3. 明天美国不是? (Are you going to the United States tomorrow?)

      主语谓语宾语 + “不是”? (subject + predicate + object + 不是?)

  6. 疑问句 (Questions that use )

    疑问句独语句加上助词询问事物哪里怎么样。 (This kind of sentence adds the particle to the end of a one word sentence to ask the location or condition of a person or thing.

    1. 咖啡。)? (I would like to drink some coffee.) How about you?

    2. 电话? (Where is the telephone?)

    3. 背包? (Where is your backpack?)

      偏正词组 (endocentric phrase + )

  7. 疑问句 Questions using

    疑问句副词询问程度数量?“后面只能一般单音形容词比如: (This kind of sentence uses the adverb to ask about degree or quantity. There can only be a single word after , which is usually a monosyllabic adjective. For example,)

    1. ? (How tall is that tree?)

    2. 母亲? (How old is your mother?)

祈使句 Imperative Sentences


Imperative sentences express a command, a request, or advice in an imperative tone. A period or explamation mark is used at the end of the sentence. The subject is often missing and the predicate is usually a verb. For example,

  1. ! (Quick, go!)

  2. ! (Eat!)

  3. ! (Come in!)

    常用动词”。 (The verb is often used at the beginning of the sentence.)

感叹句 Exclamatory Sentences


Exclamatory sentences express admiration, love, surprise, loathing and other emotions in an exclamatory tone. An exclamation mark is used at the end of the sentence. For example,

  1. 今天天气! (It is freezing today!)

    感叹句经常程度副词比如”、“”、“。 (Exclamatory sentences often use adverbs expressing a high degree, such as 、and .

  2. 孩子聪明! (That child is so beautiful!)

    感叹句语气助词”。 (The modal particles and are often added to exclamatory sentences.)

Next: 动作的状态 Aspects of an Action