Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

单句 Simple Sentences


Sentences are formed from words and phrases using grammatical rules to express a complete idea. In general, simple sentences are composed of a subject and a predicate. Sentences can also be classified as either subject-predicate sentences or non subject-predicate sentences. Subject-predicate sentences use a subject section and a predicate section. For example,

  1.   学习物理学。 (He studies physics.) “主语部分,“学习物理学谓语部分。 ( is the subject section and 学习物理学 is the predicate section.)
  2. 图书馆   安静。 (The library is very quiet.) “图书馆主语部分,“安静谓语部分。 (图书馆 is the predicate section and 安静 is the predicate section.)


Subject-predicate sentences can be divided into those with a verbal predicate, those adjectival predicate, those with a nominal predicate, and those with a subject-predicate phrase as the predicate.


Non subject-predicate sentences can be classified as subjectless sentences, one word sentences, and elliptical sentences. For example,

  1. 。 (It's raining.)
  2. ! (Watch out!)


Simple sentences can also be classified by their use. Simple sentences can be classified as declarative sentences, interrogative sentences, imperative sentences, or exclamatory sentences.

动词谓语句 Sentences with a Verbal Predicate


Sentences with a verbal predicate use a verb as the predicate to state what the subject does. In general, sentences with a verbal predicate have three forms:

  1. 主语谓语动词

    Subject + predicate (verb)

    1. 咱们商量。 (Let's talk it over.)

      咱们主语部分,“商量谓语部分动词。 (咱们 is the subject section and 商量 is the predicate section, which is a verb.)

    2. 。 (I am going.)

      主语部分,“谓语部分动词”。 (The subject section is and the predicate section is , which uses the verb .)

  2. 主语谓语及物动词) + 宾语

    Subject + predicate (transitive verb) + object

    1. 。 (I am buying vegetables.)

      主语、“谓语及物动词、“宾语。 ( is the subject, is the predicate and is a transitive verb, and is the object.)

    2. 学习英文。 (He studies English.)

      主语部分、“学习谓语及物动词、“英文宾语。 ( is the subject, 学习 is the predicate and also a transitive verb, and 英文 is the object.

  3. 主语谓语及物动词) + 间接宾语直接宾语

    Subject + predicate (transitive verb) + indirect object + direct object

    1. 老师我们英语。 (The teacher is teaching us English.)

      老师主语、“谓语及物动词、“我们间接宾语、“英语直接宾语老师 is the subject, is the predicate and also a transitive verb, 我们 is an indirect object, and 英语 is a direct object.

    2. 。 (I will give you the money.)

      主语、“谓语及物动词、“间接宾语、“直接宾语。 ( is the subject, is the predicate and also a transitive verb, is an indirect object, and is a direct object.)


Use the negating adverb before the predicate adverb to express "never in the future", "not often", "not willing", etc. If the predicate verb is then use the negating adverb . If the action has not yet occured or not yet been completed use the negative adverb or 没有. For example,

  1. 孩子。 (The child is not eating.)

    副词表示孩子愿意。 (The adverb expresses that the child is not willing to eat.)

  2. 。 (I have not got a car.)

    谓语动词”。 (The predicate verb is .)

  3. 。 (I haven't gone yet.)

    动作没有发生。 (The action has not yet taken place.)

形容词谓语句 Sentences with an Adjectival Predicate


Sentences with an adjectival predicate use an adjective to describe what the subject is like. Its basic forms are:

  1. 肯定主语谓语形容词

    [Affirmative form] Subject + predicate (adjective)

    1. 。 (There are a lot of people.)

      主语,“谓语形容词。 ( is the subject, is the predicate and is an adjective.)

    2. 天气。 (The weather is hot.)

      天气主语,“谓语形容词。 (天气 is the subject, is the predicate and is an adjective.)

  2. 否定主语状语副词”) + 谓语形容词

    [Negative form] Subject + adverbial adjunct (adverb ) + predicate (adjective)

    1. 汽车。 (The car is not new.)

      汽车主语,“谓语形容词。 (汽车 is the subject, is the predicate and is an adjective.)

    2. 聪明。 (He is not clever.)

      主语,“聪明谓语形容词。 ( is the subject, 聪明 is the predicate and is an adjective.)


The adverb is often used before the predicate adverb, acting as an adverbial adjunct but does not generally express degree. If the adverb is not used then a comparison is usually meant. The adverbs 比较十分相当特别非常 are often used to express degree. For example,

  1. 。 (He is tall.)

    副词表示程度。 (The adverb does not express degree.)

  2. 。 (He is taller.)

    不用比较意思。 (Without a comparison is meant.)

  3. 特别。 (He is extremely tall.)

    副词特别表示程度。 (The adverb 特别 expresses degree.)

名词谓语句 Sentences with a Nominal Predicate


Sentences with nominal predicates use a noun or a nominal endocentric phrase to express a sum of money, a festival, a profession, a solar term, a date, or a person's age. Sentences with nominal predicates are usually short and simple. For example,

  1. 明天初一。 (Tomorrow is the first day of the lunar month.)

    名词初一充当谓语。 (The noun 初一 acts as the predicate.)

  2. 爷爷。 (Grandfather is over ninety years old.)

    数量词组充当谓语。 (The numeral-measure word phrase acts as the predicate.)

  3. 这些多少? (How much are these oranges?)

    名词偏正词组多少谓语。 (The nominal endocentric phrase 多少 acts as the predicate.)

  4. 现在。 (It's eight o'clock.)

    数量词组充当谓语。 (The numeral-measure word phrase acts as the predicate.)

主谓谓语句 Sentences with a Subject-Predicate Phrase as the Predicate


These sentences use a subject-predicate phrase as the predicate. For example,

  1. 身体健康。 (He is healthy.)

    代词主语主谓词组身体健康谓语。。 (The pronoun is the subject and the subject-predicate phrase 身体健康 is the subject.

  2. 这个学校水平。 (The standards at this school are very high.)

    这个学校主语主谓词组水平谓语。 (这个学校 is the subject and the subject-predicate phrase 水平 is the subject.)

无主句 Subjectless Sentences


Subjectless sentences do not have a subject section. In this type of sentence there is either no clear subject or the subject does not need to be articulated. For example,

  1. 。 (It's windy.)

    不要主语”。 (No need to articulate as the subject.)

  2. 下课。 (School's out.)

    需要主语。 (No subject is needed.)

  3. 。 (Check, please.)

    需要主语”。 (No need to use as the subject.)

独语句 One Word Sentences


One word sentences include only a single word or a single endocentric phrase. They are used to express time or place, praise, a discovery, a warning, to address someone, agreement, opposition, or a question. For example,

  1. 危险!(Danger)

    提醒 (a warning)

  2. 怎么? (How is that?)

    疑问 (a question)

  3. ! (Good shot!)

    赞叹 (admiration)

  4. 。 (That's fine.)

    同意 (agreement)

简略句 Elliptical Sentences


In an elliptical sentence only a part of the whole sentence is spoken because the meaning can be understood from the context. Elliptical sentences are often used in conversation. For example,

  1. ?)(。 (Are you going to buy it or not?) No. (I am not going to buy it.)

    省去主语 (The subject is ommitted.)

  2. 什么?)(饺子。 (What would you like to eat?) (I would like to eat) Dumplings.

    省去主语谓语。 (The subject and predicate are omitted.)

  3. ?))。 (Who is going?) Me. (I am going)

    省去谓语。 (The predicate is omitted.)

Next: 句子用途 Sentence Use