Pinyin English

汉语语法入门 An Introduction to Chinese Grammar

特殊动词谓语句子 Sentences using Special Verbal Predicates


Sentences using special verbal predicates

  1. ( Sentences)
  2. ( Sentences)
  3. ( Sentences)
  4. ( Sentences)
  5. 存现句 (Existential sentences)
  6. 兼语句 (Pivotal sentences)
  7. 连动句 (Sentence with verbs in series)



The sentence uses the verb as the predicate. For example,

  1. 朋友。 (He is my friend.)

    基本格式主语 + “” + 宾语。 (The basic form of the sentence is: subject + + object.)

  2. 已经专家。 (You are an expert already.)

    副词已经修饰动词”。 (The adverb 已经 decorates the verb .)

  3. 不是老板。 (You are not the boss.)

    否定副词”。 (The negative form of the sentence uses the adverb .)


The verb cannot be followed by a complement or by the aspectual particles 、or .


动词充当谓语基本格式主语 + “” + 宾语比如

sentences use the verb as the predicate. The basic form is: subject + + object. For example,

  1. 大象。 (He has two elephants.)

    基本格式。 (This is the basic form of the sentence).

  2. 还有时间。 (I still have some time.)

    副词前边充当状语。 (The adverb , placed in front of acts as an adverbial adjunct.)

  3. 没有。 (I do not have any money.)

    否定前边副词”。 (Place the in front of to construct the negative form.

  4. 零钱。 (I don't have any small change.)

    宾语简单否定可以省去”。 (When the object is simple, the negative form can omit .)



In a sentence the passive preposition and its object act as an adverbial adjunct. The basic form is

受事者主语) + “施事者(状语) + 动词谓语) + 其他成分

Receiver (subject) + agent (adverbial adjunct) + vebr + other elements


For example,

  1. 经理批评。 (He was critized by the manager.)

    基本格式主语施事者经理批评 (Basic form — the subject is the receiver of the action 批评 by the agent 经理.)

  2. 那个姑娘绑架。 (The girl was kidnapped.)

    有时施事者可以省去绑架)。 (Sometimes the agent of the action can be omitted — kidnapped by bad guys.)

  3. 工人罢工公司粉碎。 (The workers' strike was broken by the company.)

    谓语粉碎必须及物动词 (The predicate [粉碎] must be a transitive verb.)



The sentence uses the preposition with its object to act as an adverbial adjunct, which modifies a verb predicate. This kind of sentence places emphasis on a certain person or thing and the result or influence that it produces. The subject of a sentence must be the agent of the action. The basic form of the sentence is

施事主语) + “受事状语) + 动词谓语

Agent of the action (subject) + reciever (adverbial adjunct) + verb (predicate)


For example,

  1. 雨伞。 (She lost the umbrella.)

    基本格式施事者主语”。 (This is the basic form of the sentence. The subject and agent of the action is .)

  2. 单子。 (He tore up that list.)

    谓语动词(“”)一定及物动词。 (The predicate verb, in this case, must be a transitive verb.)

  3. 没把衣服干净。 (I haven't finished washing the clothes yet.)

    否定副词”。 (The adverb should be used in the negative form of the sentence.)


Verbs that do not affect people or things cannot function as the predicate in a sentence. For example, 等于知道认识觉得喜欢愿意开始结束。 Some predicate verbs are followed by complex structures. In these cases sentences must be used. For example,

  1. 冰箱。 (I put the left over food in the fridge.)

    动词谓语结果补语后面表示处所宾语必须冰箱”。 (When the verb is used as a complement of result for a verb predicate taking an object expressing a location, a sentence must be used. We cannot say, 冰箱。)

  2. 大门。 (She led two horses to the main gate.)

    动词谓语结果补语后面表示处所宾语必须。 (When the verb acts as the complement of result of the predicate and the object expresses a location then a sentence must be used.)

存现句 Existential Sentences


An existential sentence does not have a subject and the beginning of the sentence uses a place or time word or phrase to indicate the existence, appearance, or disappearance of a thing or person. For example,

  1. 昨天不少。 (Quite a few people came yesterday.)

    状语昨天表示时间动词谓语表示不少出现。 (The adverbial adjunct 昨天 expresses time while the verb predicate expresses the appearance of 不少

  2. 东边喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.)

    状语东边表示方位动词谓语表示喇嘛出现。 (The adverbial adjunct 东边 describes the location and the verb predicate describes the appearance of a 喇嘛.

兼语句 Pivotal Sentences


A pivotal sentence has two predicates, the first of which has an object that serves as the subject for the second predicate. This object is called the pivot. The basic form of the pivotal sentence is:

主语谓语1(动词) + 兼语谓语2

Subject + predicate 1 (verb) + pivot + predicate 2


For example,

  1. 你们。 (I will treat you all to the meal.)

    代词你们谓语宾语谓语主语就是兼语。 (The pronoun 你们 is the object for the predicate and also the subject for the predicate . It is the pivot.

  2. 老师我们唱歌。 (The teacher asked us to sing a song.)

    兼语谓语表示前边谓语达到目的。 (The predicate of the pivot expresses the goal of the first predicate .)

  3. 警察司机。 (The policeman directed the driver to stop the car.)

    兼语句前边谓语一般表示请求使令意思动词常见动词:“使禁止。 (The first predicate in pivotal sentences usually expresses a request, a command, etc. Commonly used verbs include 使禁止.)

  4. 。 (Please eat.)

    前边谓语兼语经常省略。 (When the first predicate is then the pivot is often omitted.)

连动句 Sentences with Verb Constructions in Series


Sentences with verb constructions in series have two or more verbs serving as predicates for the same subject. The basic form for sentences with verb constructions in series is

主语谓语1 + (宾语1) + 谓语2 + (宾语2)

Subject + predicate 1 + (object 1) + predicate 2 + (object 2)


For example,

  1. 。 (He took off riding a bicycle.)

    第一谓语”、第一宾语”、第二谓语”。 (The first predicate is , the first object is , and the second predicate is .)

  2. 咱们王府井

    后面动词表示前面动词目的。 (The following verb expresses the purpose of the preceding verb .)

  3. 今天。 (I cannot go to buy you a ticket today.)

    否定副词)” (The negative form uses the adverb or the adverb ).

  4. 咱们中文。 (Let's talk in Chinese.)

    一定表示方式谓语宾语中文前边。 (Predicates and objects expressing means, 中文 in this case, must be placed in front.

Next: 复句 Complex Sentences