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An Introduction to Chinese Grammar 汉语语法入门

用特殊动词谓语的句子 Sentences using Special Verbal Predicates

Sentences using special verbal predicates

  1. Sentences
  2. Sentences
  3. Sentences
  4. Sentences
  5. Existential sentences
  6. Pivotal sentences
  7. Sentence with verbs in series

字句 Sentences

The sentence uses the verb as the predicate. For example,

  1. 朋友。 (He is my friend.

    (The basic form of the sentence is: subject + + object.)

  2. 已经专家。 You are an expert already.

    (The adverb 已经 decorates the verb .)

  3. 不是老板。 You are not the boss.

    The negative form of the sentence uses the adverb .

The verb cannot be followed by a complement or by the aspectual particles 、or .

字句 Sentences

sentences use the verb as the predicate. The basic form is: subject + + object. For example,

  1. 两头大象。 He has two elephants.

    (This is the basic form of the sentence.)

  2. 还有时间。 I still have some time.

    (The adverb , placed in front of acts as an adverbial adjunct.)

  3. 没有。 I do not have any money.

    (Place the in front of to construct the negative form.)

  4. 零钱。 I don't have any small change.

    When the object is simple, the negative form can omit .

Sentences

In a sentence the passive preposition and its object act as an adverbial adjunct. The basic form is

Receiver (subject) + agent (adverbial adjunct) + vebr + other elements

For example,

  1. 经理批评。 (He was critized by the manager.

    (Basic form — the subject is the receiver of the action 批评 by the agent 经理.)

  2. 那个姑娘绑架。 The girl was kidnapped.

    (Sometimes the agent of the action can be omitted — kidnapped by bad guys.)

  3. 工人罢工公司粉碎。 The workers' strike was broken by the company.

    (The predicate [粉碎] must be a transitive verb.)

Sentences

The sentence uses the preposition with its object to act as an adverbial adjunct, which modifies a verb predicate. This kind of sentence places emphasis on a certain person or thing and the result or influence that it produces. The subject of a sentence must be the agent of the action. The basic form of the sentence is

Agent of the action (subject) + reciever (adverbial adjunct) + verb (predicate)

For example,

  1. 雨伞。 She lost the umbrella.

    This is the basic form of the sentence. The subject and agent of the action is .

  2. 单子。 He tore up that list.

    (The predicate verb, in this case, must be a transitive verb.)

  3. 衣服干净。 I haven't finished washing the clothes yet.

    (The adverb should be used in the negative form of the sentence.)

Verbs that do not affect people or things cannot function as the predicate in a sentence. For example, 等于知道认识觉得喜欢愿意开始结束。 Some predicate verbs are followed by complex structures. In these cases sentences must be used. For example,

  1. 冰箱。 I put the left over food in the fridge.

    (When the verb is used as a complement of result for a verb predicate taking an object expressing a location, a sentence must be used. We cannot say, 冰箱。)

  2. 大门。 She led two horses to the main gate.

    (When the verb acts as the complement of result of the predicate and the object expresses a location then a sentence must be used.)

存现句 Existential Sentences

An existential sentence does not have a subject and the beginning of the sentence uses a place or time word or phrase to indicate the existence, appearance, or disappearance of a thing or person. For example,

  1. 昨天不少。 Quite a few people came yesterday.

    The adverbial adjunct 昨天 expresses time while the verb predicate expresses the appearance of 不少.)

  2. 东边喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.)

    (The adverbial adjunct 东边 describes the location and the verb predicate describes the appearance of a 喇嘛.)

兼语句 Pivotal Sentences

A pivotal sentence has two predicates, the first of which has an object that serves as the subject for the second predicate. This object is called the pivot. The basic form of the pivotal sentence is:

Subject + predicate 1 (verb) + pivot + predicate 2

For example,

  1. 你们吃饭。 (I will treat you all to the meal.)

    (The pronoun 你们 is the object for the predicate and also the subject for the predicate . It is the pivot.

  2. 老师我们唱歌。 The teacher asked us to sing a song.

    (The predicate of the pivot expresses the goal of the first predicate .)

  3. 警察司机停车。 The policeman directed the driver to stop the car.

    (The first predicate in pivotal sentences usually expresses a request, a command, etc. Commonly used verbs include 使禁止.)

  4. 吃饭)。 Please (eat).

    (The pronoun 你们 is the object for the predicate and also the subject for the predicate . It is the pivot.)

连动句 Sentences with Verb Constructions in Series

Sentences with verb constructions in series have two or more verbs serving as predicates for the same subject. The basic form for sentences with verb constructions in series is

Subject + predicate 1 + (object 1) + predicate 2 + (object 2)

For example,

  1. 骑车。 He took off riding a bicycle.

    (The first predicate is , the first object is , and the second predicate is .)

  2. 咱们王府井。 Let's go to Wangfujing to hangout.

    (The following verb 'play' expresses the purpose of the preceding verb 'arrive'.)

  3. 今天不能买票。 I cannot go to buy you a ticket today.

    (The negative form uses the adverb or the adverb ).

  4. 咱们中文。 Let's talk in Chinese.

    (Predicates and objects expressing means, 中文 in this case, must be placed in front.)

Glossary and Other Vocabulary