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Chinese History High Level 中国重点历史
c.5000 BCE 仰韶文化 Yangshao Culture The Yangshao culture was established at about this time.
c.4500 BCE 陶文 Pottery Writing A precursor to Chinese characters
c.4000 BCE 母系氏族公社 Matriarchal Clans Both matriarchal and patriarchal clans existed in China during the Paleolithic.
c.4000 BCE 裴李岗文化 Peiligang Culture New Stone Age culture emerged in the middle reaches of the Yellow River
c.2850 BCE 八卦 Divinatory Trigrams Discovered by legendary Emperor Fuxi
c.2699 BCE 黄帝 Yellow Emperor Legendary Yellow Emperor reign began, the traditional start of (written) Chinese history
c.2600 BCE 文字 Writing Developed by legendary character Cang Jie 仓颉
c.2500 BCE 龙山文化 Longshan Culture The Yangshao culture was superseded by the Longshan culture at about this time.
c.2400 BCE 三代 Three Dynasties The Three Dynasties period, including, Xia, Shang, and Zhou, is considered to begin sometime before 2400 BCE.
c.2400 BCE 夏朝 Xia The legendary Xia Dynasty, the first of the Three Dynasties, is considered to begin sometime before 2400 BCE.
c.2000 BCE 三星堆 Three Stars Mound Earliest artifacts from the archaeological site in Sichuan produced by a Bronze Age culture
c.1800 BCE 二里头 Erlitou Xia Dynasty culture in Henan, earliest ruins of a palace found in China
c.1700 BCE 商朝 Shang The Shang Dynasty began
c.1600 BCE 瓷器 porcelain First used
c.1600 BCE 干支 Stem-Branch cycle Calendar system for predicting the cycles of the year
c.1600 BCE 十进位 Decimal System Began to be used
c.1300 BCE 甲骨文 Oracle bone script First appeared for use in divinations during the Shang Dynasty
c.1045 BCE 商朝 Shang The Shang Dynasty ended
c.1045 BCE 周朝 Zhou The Zhou Dynasty began c 1045 BCE.
c.1045 BCE 西周 Western Zhou The Western Zhou Dynasty began about 1045 BCE.
c.1045 BCE 镐京 Haojing Becomes capital of Zhou
c.841 BCE 国人暴动 Compatriots Rebellion occurred in the Western Zhou capital of Haojing
c.800 BCE 圭表 Guibiao An astronomical instrument based on the position and length of the shadow of a dial in the sun was used
c.771 BCE 西周 Western Zhou The Western Zhou Dynasty ended.
c.770 BCE 东周 Eastern Zhou The Eastern Zhou Dynasty began.
c.770 BCE 洛阳 Luoyang Zhou capital moved to Luoyang (then called Luoyi 雒邑) because of invasion from nomadic tribes
c.770 BCE 春秋 Spring and Autumn Period The Eastern Zhou Dynasty began with the Spring and Autumn Period. The influence of Zhou was replaced with more than ten smaller states.
c.770 BCE 百家争鸣 Hundred Schools of Thought Contend Classical philosophic schools contend for their voices to be heard starting about this time
c.571 BCE 老子 Laozi The founder of Taosim was born
c.551 BCE 孔子 Confucius The founder of Confucianism was born
c.546 BCE 春秋五霸 Five Hegemons The Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn Period was reduced to two: Jin 晋 and Chu 楚
c.507 BCE 鲁班 Lu Ban Legendary master craftsman, called the father of Chinese carpentry, was born
c.500 BCE 书经 Book of History Book of historic records was compiled
c.500 BCE 铁器 Iron Implements First used in China
c.500 BCE 孙子兵法 Art of War Written by Sun Zi 孙子, statesman and military strategist in the Spring and Autumn Period
c.479 BCE 墨子 Mo Zi Philosopher, military strategist, scientist, and founder of the founder of Mohist School 墨家 was born
475 BCE 春秋 Spring and Autumn Period The Spring and Autumn Period ended.
475 BCE 战国 Warring States Period The Warring States Period began.
c.475 BCE 考工记 Records of Examination of Craftsman The earliest known Chinese work on crafts and technology, compiled sometime in the Spring and Autumn Period
c.403 BCE 三家分晋 Three Houses Split Jin The state of Jin is split into three smaller states: Han 韩, Zhao 赵, and Wei 魏
c.400 BCE 国语 Book of Historical Narrative Early historical narrative
c.372 BCE 孟子 Mencius Influential Confucian philosopher and author of the classical text with the same name was born
c.369 BCE 庄子 Zhuang Zi Influential Chinese philosopher and key figure in Taoism born
c.364 BCE 甘德 Gan De The first Chinese star catalog was compiled by Gan De
c.356 BCE 商鞅变法 Shang Yang's Political Reforms Political reform of the State of Qin 秦国 that led it to domination
c.340 BCE 屈原 Qu Yuan Statesman and poet, the first poet in China to be known by name in historic records
c.316 BCE 孙膑 Sun Bin Military strategist and founder of the School of Diplomacy 纵横家 died
c.310 BCE 荀子 Xun Zi Influential Confucian philosopher and author of On Learning 劝学 was born
c.300 BCE 指南针 Compass Invented before or around this time, referred to in the book Devil Valley Master 鬼谷子
c.300 BCE 鬼谷子 Devil Valley Master Book about political and military strategy was written
c.280 BCE 韩非 Han Fei Qin Legalist philosopher who advocated strict authoritarian rule was born, had a strong Influence on the the first emperor Qin Shihuang and later rulers.
c.256 BCE 都江堰 Dujiangyan Large scale irrigiation project built in near Chengdu, Sichuan
221 BCE 战国 Warring States Period The Warring States Period ended.
221 BCE 秦朝 Qin Dyansty China was unified and the Qin Dynasty began.
221 BCE 秦始皇 Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang unified China defeating the other states of the Warring States Period.
221 BCE 咸阳 Xianyang Xianyang, located near present day Xi'an, becomes the capital of China.
c.220 BCE 丈量制度 Measurement System The Qin Dynasty standardized measuring systems
c.220 BCE 驰道 National Roads Qin Shihuang ordered construction of a national road system
c.213 BCE 焚书坑儒 Burn the books and bury Confucian scholars alive The Qin Dynasty standardized characters and burned books written in non-standard variants
c.212 BCE 直道 Jiuyuan to Yunyang Road Was built by built by Meng Tian
210 BCE 秦始皇 Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang died.
c.210 BCE 兵马俑 Terracotta Army 8,000 soldiers as well as chariots and horses were made to assist Emperor Qin Shihuang in the afterlife
206 BCE 刘邦 Liu Bang Attacked the Qin capital Xianyang
206 BCE 秦朝 Qin Dyansty The Qin Dyansty ended when the infant Emperor Qin San Shi surrendered to Liu Bang
206 BCE 汉朝 Han Dyansty The Han Dyansty was established by Liu Bang.
206 BCE 西汉 Western Han The Western Han Dyansty or former Han Dynasty began.
202 BCE 刘邦 Liu Bang Reign of first Han emperor began.
202 BCE 长安 Chang'an The Han capital was established at Chang'an.
195 BCE 刘邦 Liu Bang Reign of first Han emperor ended.
c.141 BCE 丝绸之路 Silk Road Initially opened from China to the West during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han, connecting China with the Roma
c.140 BCE 纸 Paper Early paper making developed in China
c.139 BCE 西域 Western Regions Han diplomat Zhang Qian 张骞 was dispatched to the Western Regions (present day Xinjiang) creating a Han Chinese mission at a strategic point along the Silk Road
c.136 BCE 儒家 Confucianism Emperor Wu of Han 汉武帝 made the teachings of Confucius, emphasizing respect and harmony, the official state ideology
c.121 BCE 匈奴 Huns Han military defeated the Huns in a number of battles, forcing them north and west
c.109 BCE 史记 Records of the Historian Voluminous chronicle of ancient Chinese history compiled from approximately 109 BC to 91 BCE.
8 BCE 西汉 Western Han The Western Han Dyansty or former Han Dynasty ended. It was interrupted by Wang Mang, who established the short lived Xin Dynasty.
c.8 BCE 战国策 Stratagems of the Warring States Military chronicle of the Warring States Period was compiled
3 太学 Imperial Academy Higher education institution established
8 新朝 Xin Dyansty The Xin Dyansty was established by Wang Mang.
8 王莽 Wang Mang Siezed power and became the one and only emperor of the Xin Dynasty.
23 新朝 Xin Dyansty The Xin Dyansty ended.
25 东汉 Eastern Han The Eastern Han Dyansty or Later Han Dynasty began when Emperor Guangwu 光武皇帝 regained control for Han
25 洛阳 Luoyang The capital moves to Luoyang with the beginning of the Eastern Han. The later Han is called Eastern Han because of the location of the capital.
c.68 白马寺 White Horse Temple The first Buddhist temple in China was built
c.121 造纸术 Paper Making Technique Cai Lun developed an improved paper making technique forming the basis for modern techniques
c.130 天文 Astronomy Han astronomer Zhang Heng 张衡 documented about 2,500 stars in his star catalogue, explained eclipses, and made numerous other advances in astronomy and science
155 曹操 Cao Cao Born. Cao Cao was instrumental in founding the state of Cao Wei, the strongest of the Three Kingdoms
181 诸葛亮 Zhu Geliang Military leader and prime minister of Shu Han 蜀汉 was born
184 黄巾之乱 Yellow Turban Rebellion A peasant uprising.
c.215 张仲景 Zhang Zhongjing physician and medical researcher, wrote the book of Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases
220 汉朝 Han Dyansty The Han Dyansty ended.
220 三国 Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms period, including Cao Wei, Shu Han, Wu, began.
220 东汉 Eastern Han The Eastern Han Dyansty or Later Han Dynasty ended.
220 曹魏 Cao Wei The state of Cao Wei, the strongest of the Three Kingdoms, was established.
220 蜀汉 Shu Han The state of Shu Han, one of the Three Kingdoms, was established.
220 东吴 Eastern Wu The state of Eastern Wu, one of the Three Kingdoms, was established.
220 曹操 Cao Cao Died.
234 诸葛亮 Zhu Geliang Died
265 曹魏 Cao Wei The state of Cao Wei ended.
265 蜀汉 Shu Han The state of Shu Han ended.
265 洛阳 Luoyang Luoyang became the capital of the Jin court, which controls most of China at this point
266 晋 Jin Dynasty The Jin Dyansty was founded by Emperor Wu.
266 西晋 Western Jin Dynasty The Western Jin Dyansty began.
280 三国 Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms period ends when Jin gains control of Wu 吴, the last of the three kingdoms.
280 东吴 Eastern Wu The state of Eastern Wu ended.
c.289 三国志 History of the Three Kingdoms Key historic source for the Three Kingdoms period
304 五胡乱华 Wu Hu Uprising Beginning of the uprising of the Wu Hu against the Western Jin court.
304 十六国 Sixteen Kingdoms Period begins when Jin was attacked by many ethnic groups on the boarders around the China Central Plains
311 洛阳 Luoyang The capital moved from Luoyang to Chang'an (present day Xi'an).
316 建康 Jiankang The capital moved from Chang'an to Jiankang (present day Nanjing).
316 五胡乱华 Wu Hu Uprising Victory by the Wu Hu.
317 西晋 Western Jin Dynasty The Western Jin Dyansty ended.
317 东晋 Eastern Jin Dynasty The Eastern Jin Dyansty began. It is referred to as because of the location of the capital (Jiankan) in relation to the capitals of the Western Jin at Luoyang and Xi'an.
384 麦积山石窟 Mount Maiji Grottoes Containing Buddhist art work began to be built
386 北魏 Northern Wei Dynasty Founded by the Tuoba
386 北朝 Northern Dynasties Period began
420 南北朝 Northern and Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern Dynasties, which included Song (or Liu Song or earlier Song), Qi, Liang, and Chen, began.
420 晋 Jin Dynasty The Jin Dyansty ended.
420 东晋 Eastern Jin Dynasty The Eastern Jin Dyansty ended.
420 刘宋 Liu Song Dynasty Liu Song Dyansty began.
420 南朝 Sourthern Dynasties Period began
429 祖冲之 Zu Chongzhi Astronomer and mathematician born
c.433 山水诗 Landscape Style Poem Initially used by Xie Lingyun 谢灵运
439 十六国 Sixteen Kingdoms Period ends
471 孝文帝 Emperor Xiaowen of Wei Began his reign, reformed the measuring systems and expanded education
479 刘宋 Liu Song Dynasty Liu Song Dyansty ended.
479 齐 Qi Dynasty Also called the 南齐 Southern Qi Dyansty began.
500 祖冲之 Zu Chongzhi Died
c.500 圆周率 Pi The circular ratio pi was computed by Zu Chongzhi 祖冲之
c.500 禅宗 Chan School of Buddhism Commonly known as Zen, was founded in China by Indian monk Bodhidharma
502 齐 Qi Dynasty Qi Dyansty ended.
502 梁 Liang Dynasty Liang Dyansty began.
c.502 文心雕龙 Wen Xin Diao Long Literature theory book written by Liu Xie 刘勰 was published
c.533 齐民要术 Essential Skill to Benefit the People The best preserved ancient Chinese agricultural text, written by Jia Sixie
557 梁 Liang Dynasty Liang Dyansty ended.
557 陈 Chen Dynasty Chen Dyansty began.
557 北魏 Northern Wei Dynasty Fell
557 北周 Northern Zhou Dynasty Founded
581 隋朝 Sui Dynasty The Sui Dyansty began, reuniting China and reforming government
581 长安 Chang'an Chang'an became the capital of China once more with the establishment of the Sui Dynasty.
581 北周 Northern Zhou Dynasty Fell
581 北朝 Northern Dynasties Period ended
589 陈 Chen Dynasty Chen Dyansty ended.
589 南北朝 Northern and Southern Dynasties The Northern and Southern period ended.
589 南朝 Sourthern Dynasties Ended
605 大运河 Grand Canal The the first major section of the Grand Canal, Bian Qu, was completed. The Grand Canal was one of the great achievements of the Sui Dynasty.
605 科举 Imperial Examinations First introduced by the Sui court
618 隋朝 Sui Dynasty The Sui Dyansty ended.
618 唐朝 Tang Dynasty The Tang Dyansty began opening a new age of prosperity.
618 赵州桥 Zhaozhou Bridge The world's oldest still intact stone arch bridge was completed
629 西游 Journey West Venerable Xuanzang 玄奘法师 leaves Chang'an to begin his travel west to India
c.639 丝绸之路 Silk Road Reopened during the military compaign of Hou Junji in the Western Regions
690 武周革命 The ascent of Empress Wu Zitian Replaced her son as leader of the state
701 李白 Li Bai Well known Tang poet was born
712 开元盛世 Peak of Tang prosperity during Kaiyuan reign Began
c.712 明教 Manicheanism Persian religion spread to China
c.712 景教 Nestorian Christianity Spread to China from Persia
c.712 伊斯兰教 Islam Spread to China
713 开元杂报 Kaiyuan Za Bao Publication of the first periodical began, reporting news in the Tang court
c.717 子午线 Meridian Tank monk Venerable Yi Xing 僧一行 measured the length of the meridian of the earth
741 开元盛世 Peak of Tang prosperity during Kaiyuan reign Ended
c.742 鉴真 Ganjin Tank monk Venerable Ganjin is received in Japan and influential in Japanese Buddhism
755 安史之乱 An Shi Rebellion The An Shi Rebellion began. Precipitated by the military leader An Lushanm, the rebellion resulted in millions of deaths.
763 安史之乱 An Shi Rebellion The Rebellion ended.
c.808 火药 Gunpowder Invented or developed based on previous variations of similar mixtures
874 黄巢 Huang Chao Huang Chao led a rebellion against the Tang empire.
881 黄巢 Huang Chao Huang Chao conquered Chang'an, the Tang capital.
884 黄巢 Huang Chao The Huang Chao rebellion ended.
907 唐朝 Tang Dynasty The Tang Dyansty ended, overthrown by the military governmer Zhu Wen, who founded the Later Liang Dynasty.
907 辽朝 Liao Dynasty The Liao Dyansty began. It coexisted with the Song Dyansty covered areas of Northern China, Manchuria, and Mongolia.
907 五代 The Five Dynasties The chaotic Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period began as many small states were established with the collapse of the Tang.
907 后梁 Later Liang Founded by Zhu Wen 朱温 after overthrowing the Tang
923 后梁 Later Liang Ended
936 后晋 Later Jin Established
946 后晋 Later Jin Ended
960 陈桥兵变 Revolt to found the Song Dynasty Led by Zhao Kuangyin / Emperor Taizu of Song
960 五代 The Five Dynasties The Five Dynasties period ended.
960 宋朝 Song Dynasty The Song Dyansty began.
960 北宋 Northern Song The Northern Song Dynasty began.
986 燕云十六州 Sixteen Prefectures Stretching from Beijing to Yungang Caves was contested between the Song and the Khitan 契丹 People at the Battle of Qigou Pass. The Khitan maintained control.
1021 王安石 Wang Anshi Reformist statesman and poet was born
c.1023 纸币 Paper Currency The jiaozi 交子 was the first paper currency used in world history. It was used in Chengdu, Sichuan
1031 沈括 Shen Kuo Song scientist and statesman was born
1038 西夏 Western Xia Dynasty Established by the Tangut People 党项族
c.1040 活字印刷 Movable type printing Invented in China
1044 武经总要 Collection of the Most Important Military Techniques Book written that described a wide range of military techniques and technologies and contained the first written formula for gunpowder
1084 资治通鉴 Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government Voluminous historic work by Si Maguang 司马光 written
c.1088 梦溪笔谈 Dream Pool Essays Book by Song scientist and statesman Shen Kuo 沈括 on geology, astronomy, movable type printing, botany, zoology, and swords. It contained the first description of describe the magnetic needle compass
c.1088 地磁偏角 Magnetic Declination The declination of the earth's magnetic field was first described by Song scientist and statesman Shen Kuo 沈括 (400 years earlier than used in Europe)
c.1100 算盘 Abacus Use of the abacus in China dates back at least this point when it began to replace counting rods
1115 金朝 Jin Dynasty The Jin Dyansty began, founded by the Jurchen people (女真).
1125 辽朝 Liao Dynasty The Liao Dyansty ended, destroyed by the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus, of the Jin Dynasty.
1127 北宋 Northern Song The Northern Song Dyansty ended.
1127 南宋 Southern Song The Southern Song Dyansty began.
1127 汴京 Kaifeng The Jin invaded the Song capital of Bianjing 汴京 (Kaifeng), driving the Song south.
1127 靖康之耻 Humiliation of Jingkang The Song Emperor, Retired Emperor, and the Imperial family were captured by the Jin. Most were executed or sold into slavery.
1132 大炮 Cannon First documented battlefield use of gunpowder artillery was by Song General Han Shizhong
1149 农书 Agricultural Treatise Wang Zhen 王祯 compiled the first comprehensive reference on agricultural techniques
c.1151 宝钞 Chao The chao 宝钞 (abbreviation 钞) was a paper currency used widely in the Jin, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties
c.1200 理学 Neo-Confucianism Tradition began by Zhu Xi 朱熹
c.1220 关汉卿 Guan Hanqing One of the Four Great Yuan dramatists (元曲四大家) was born
1227 西夏 Western Xia Dynasty Ended
1230 金属活字 Metal Movable Type First recorded use in Korea (to print Chinese characters)
1234 金朝 Jin Dynasty Ended after attack by combined Mongol and Song forces
1235 钓鱼城之战 Battle of Fishing City Began in present day Sichuan where the Southern Song held off the Mongols and killed Mongol leader Möngke Khan by cannon shot
1260 忽必烈 Kublai Khan Founded the Yuan Dynasty and became first emperor
1272 大都 Dadu Kublai Khan established the capital at Dadu, present day Beijing
1273 襄樊之战 Battle of Xiangfan Ended with the Mongols overpowering the Southern Song
1279 宋朝 Song Dynasty The Song Dyansty ended.
1279 元朝 Yuan Dyansty The Yuan Dyansty began with the occupation of China by the Mongols. Trade with Central Asia flourished.
1279 南宋 Southern Song The Southern Song Dyansty ended, defeated by Kublai Khan's armies.
c.1279 行省制度 Provincial system of government Introduced
1279.3.12 崖山海战 Battle of Yashan The last stand of the Southern Song
1281 授时历 Shoushili Calendar Computed the year to be year to be 365.2425 days, nearly as accurate as the Gregorian calendar (1582)
1294 大元一统志 Yuan Dynasty Geographical Encyclopedia Compiled
1306 国子监 Imperial Academy Higher education institution moved to the new capital, present day Beijing
c.1330 岛夷志略 Dao Yi Zhi Lue Book written by Yuan Dynsty traveller Wang Dayuan 汪大渊 recounting travels in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa
1368 元朝 Yuan Dyansty The Yuan Dyansty ended when Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋 (Emperor Taizu of Ming) led a peasant rebellion overthrowing the Yuan administration.
1368 明朝 Ming Dynasty The Ming Dynasty began.
1368 南京 Nanjing The Ming capital was initially at Nanjing.
c.1372 水浒传 Outlaws of the Marsh One of the Four Classic Chinese Novels was written by Shi Naian 施耐庵
c.1375 火龙经 Fire Dragon Manual Ming manual on military technology was written, contained early descriptions of land mines, naval mines, cannons, handguns, and other gunpowder based weapons
c.1400 三国演义 Romance of Three Kingdoms One of the Four Classic Chinese Novels was written by Luo Guanzhong 罗贯中
1402 靖难之役 Contest between Successors of the First Ming Emperor Initiated by Emperor Yong Le
1403 北京 Beijing Beijing named as the co-capital along with Nanjing
1405 郑和 Zheng He Sails west on a series of expeditions to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and East Africa
1421 北京 Beijing Beijing designated as the capital by Yongle
1449 土木堡之变 Tumu Crisis The wipe out of the entire Ming military force and capture of Emperor Zhengtong at Tumubao, Mongolia
1472 王守仁 Wang Shouren Prominent Ming philosopher and military strategist was born
1525 张居正 Zhang Juzheng Ming politician who introduced legal reforms strengthening the state was born
c.1590 西游记 Journey to the West One of the Four Classic Chinese Novels written by Wu Chengen 吴承恩 was published
c.1617 金瓶梅 The Plum in the Golden Vase Long novel was written by Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng 兰陵笑笑生
1628 明末农民起义 Peasant Uprising of the Late Ming Began due to the conditions imposed on them by the Ming government
1644 李自成 Li Zicheng Sacked the city of Beijing with a band of rebels.
1644 明朝 Ming Dynasty The Ming Dynasty ended.
1644 清朝 Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty began.
1644 明末农民起义 Peasant Uprising of the Late Ming Ended
1644 南明 Southern Ming After the defeat of the Ming in the North some of the imperial family fled to the South and were claimed to be emperors
1662 南明 Southern Ming Ended
1662 台湾 Taiwan Ming loyalist 郑成功 Koxinga defeated Dutch colonialists in Formosa and gaining control of the island
1683 台湾 Taiwan Emperor Kangxi defeated Ming loyalists to gain control of Taiwan
1698 中俄尼布楚条约 Treaty of Nerchinsk Between Qing government and Russia
1757 海禁 Prohibition on entering or leaving by sea China introduced a policy of to close the passes and seal off the country 闭关锁国, restricting sea travel as a form of trade protectionism
1787 鸦片 Opium Britain began importing opium into China
1838 林则徐 Lin Zexu Emperor Dao Guang Lin Zexu to Guangzhou to prevent opium smuggling
1840 鸦片战争 Opium Wars The First Opium War began.
1842 南京条约 Treaty of Nanjing Ended the First Opium War on the condition that five major ports be opened for trade and the Island of Hong Kong be given to Britain
1851 捻军起义 Nien Rebellion Began in Northern China
1851.1.11 金田起义 Jintian Uprising Led to the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 太平天国
1851.1.11 太平天国 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Established by the leader of the Taiping Rebellion, 洪秀全 Hong Xiuquan, at its peak occupying parts of eighteen provinces in Southern China
1853 天京 Tianjing Taiping forces occupied Nanjing and renamed it Tianjing, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 太平天国
1856 鸦片战争 Opium Wars The Second Opium War began.
1858.5.28 瑷珲条约 Treaty of Aigun unequal treaty forced on Qing China by Tsarist Russia
1860 圆明园 Old Summer Palace The Old Summer Palace or Yuanmingyuan was sacked by British and French troops.
1860 北京条约 Convention of Peking The Second Opium War ended with the signing of this treaty.
1864.7 太平天国 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Taiping Rebellion was defeated when Qing forces took Nanjing.
1868 捻军起义 Nien Rebellion Ended after defeat by Qing forces and the Ever Victorious Army 常胜军
1881 中俄伊犁条约 Treaty of Saint Petersburg Russia handed back Yili province to China in exchange for compensation payment and unequal treaty rights
1883.12 中法战争 Sino-French War Began
1885.4 中法战争 Sino-French War Ended with France seizing Northern Vietnam and China retaining control of Guangxi
1894 中日甲午战争 First Sino-Japanese War Began
1895 中日甲午战争 First Sino-Japanese War Resulted in China's defeat
1895.4.17 马关条约 Treaty of Shimonoseki Concluded the first Sino-Japanese war and ceded Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to Japan
1898 义和团运动 Boxer Rebellion An anti-colonialist, anti-Christian movement in response to European opium traders and political invasion began
1898.6.9 展拓香港界址专条 Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory Britain forced China to sign a treaty to lease the New Territories of Hong Kong for 99 years
1899 八国联军 Eight-Nation Alliance Formed to rescue expatriots from violence in the Boxer Rebellion
1901.9.7 义和团运动 Boxer Rebellion Ended
1901.9.7 辛丑条约 Boxer Protocol Was signed after the Boxer Uprising. It included 450 million taels of silver and a number of unfair conditions
1905 中国同盟会 Chinese United League Sun Yat-sen's alliance for democracy was founded; later became the Nationalist Party 国民党
1911 清朝 Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty ended.
1912 国民党 Nationalist Party Founded
1912.1.1 中华民国 Republic of China The founding of the Republic of China.
1912.1.1 南京 Nanjing Was designated as the capital of the Republic of China
1912.2.12 宣统 Emperor Xuan Tong The last emperor abdicated after the declaration of the Republic of China
1912.2.15 北洋军阀 Northern Warlords Began rule of the Beiyang Government 北洋政府 from Beijing
1926 北伐 Northern Expedition Nationalists' campaign against the Northern Warlords begins
1928 北洋军阀 Northern Warlords Defeated by the Nationalists and China unified
1931.9.18 九一八事变 September 18, 1931 Incident Japanese invaded Northeast China
1934 长征 Long March Began in Jiangxi.
1934 满洲国 Manchuria Puppet state was established by Japan
1936 长征 Long March Ended in Shaanxi.
1937.7.7 抗日战争 War of Resistance against Japan The Second Sino-Japanese War becomes a full scale war
1945 抗日战争 War of Resistance against Japan Ended with the surrender of Japan in WWII.
1946.6 国共内战 Chinese Civil War Erupts in full
1949.10.1 中华民国 Republic of China The Republic of China government moves to Taiwan, defeat of the Nationalists by the Communists.
1949.10.1 中华人民共和国 People's Republic of China The founding of the People's Republic of China.
1950.10.25 中国人民志愿军 People's Volunteer Army Formed to aid North Korea in the Korean War
1953 计划经济 Planned Economy First five year plan 五年计划 began
1958 大跃进 Great Leap Forward An economic and social experiment, with estimated 20 million people dying of starvation
1966.5.16 文化大革命 Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong inititiated the Cultural Revolution.
1971.9.13 林彪 Lin Biao Died in a plane crash after an apparent failed coup
1975 蒋介石 Chiang Kai-shek Died
1976 文化大革命 Cultural Revolution Ended.
1976.9.9 毛泽东 Mao Zedong Died.
1978.3.8 邓小平 Deng Xiaoping Becomes chair of the Chinese Communist Party
c.1979 改革开放 Reform and opening up policy Began
1990 邓小平 Deng Xiaoping Steps down as leader of the Chinese Communist Party
1997.7.1 香港 Hong Kong Britain returned Hong Kong to China
1999 澳门 Macau Returned to China by Portugal
2001.12.11 世贸组织 World Trade Organization China joins the WTO
Zu Haishan (Ed.), 2006. The History of China, Beijing Thread-binding Books Publishing House, 2006.9 ISBN 7-80106-524-3.
许海山 主编《中国历史》.北京线装书局，2006.9 ISBN 7-80106-524-3
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