each / every

繁体 traditional:
听 listen: Play audio
语法 grammar: 代词 Pronoun
笔记 notes: Also classified as a determiner. 各 is used in this sense in both modern and Literary Chinese. For example, in modern Chinese, 各类美术作品 'all kinds of artworks.' (XHN 2015-12-25) In Literary Chinese it refers to the subject of a sentence (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 130). 各欲正己也 'Each State wishing itself to be corrected ...' (Mengzi: 14.4/73/23, translation by Legge)
概念 concept: 指示代词 Demonstrative Pronoun
上概念 parent concept: 数量 (Quantity)
话题 topic: 现代汉语 (Modern Chinese)

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