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In Chinese, there are many ways to express comparison, including
- The preposition 比
Example: 这个比那个贵。 This one is more expensive than that one.
- The preposition 跟.
Example: 你跟你爸一样。 You are the same as your father.
- The verb 象
Example: 你象个孩子一样这么说话。 You sound like a child when you talk like that.
- The verb 有
Example: 你有你爸高吗？ Are you as tall as your father?
- The verb 不如
Example: 我不如你那么努力。 I am not as diligent as you.
- The adverb 越来越
Example: 老百姓的生活水平遗传高。 The living standard of ordinary people has been consistently increasing.
The preposition 比 can be used to express the difference in nature or degree of two people or objects. The basic form is:
Person or thing to compare (subject) + 比 person or thing to compare (adverbial adjunct) + predicate
- 丝绸比棉花漂亮。 Silk is more pretty than cotton.
(The adverbial adjunct 比棉花 modifies the predicate 漂亮 comparing the degree of beauty of 丝绸 and 棉花.)
- 朝阳区的房子比宣武区的房子贵。 Homes in Chaoyang District are more expensive than homes in Xuanwu District.
(The preposition 比 and the endocentric phrase 宣武区的房子 form a prepositional phrase. which acts as the adverbial adjunct.)
- 这辆车比那辆车快一点。 This car is a little faster than that one.
(When the difference is small then complements of quantity, such as 一点 and 一些 are often used.)
- 一天比一天好。 Every day is better than the last.
(To express progress the following form can be used: 一 + measure word + 比 一 + measure word + predicate.)
The preposition 跟 can also be used to express the diferences and similarities between two people or objects. Use 跟 to explain whether two people or things are or are not the same. Use 比 to describe the difference more specifically. The basic form of such a sentence is:
Person or thing to compare (subject) + 跟 Person or thing to compare (adverbial adjunct) + predicate
- 我跟你一样。 I am the same as you.
(The pronoun 我 acts as the subject, the prepositional phrase 跟你 is the adverbial adjunct, and the adjective 一样 is the predicate.)
- 这杯茶的味道跟那被的差不多。 The flavor of this cup of tea and that cup are nearly the same.
(Frequently used predicate adjectives include, 一样、差不多、and 相同.)
The verb 象 can be used to express that two people or object resemble one another. The basic form is:
Person or thing (Subject) + 象 (predicate) + Person or thing (object)
- 他象一个小丑。 He looks like a clown.
(The verb 象 is used to compare the subject 他 and the object of the sentence 小丑.)
- 你象你妈妈那么爱心。 You are so compassionate, just like your mother.
(The verb 象, the endocentric phrase 你妈妈, and the demonstrative pronoun 那么 form the adverbial adjunct 象你妈妈那么. The adjective 爱心 acts as the predicate.)
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