Sentences using special verbal predicates
- 是 Sentences
- 有 Sentences
- 被 Sentences
- 把 Sentences
- Existential sentences
- Pivotal sentences
- Sentence with verbs in series
- 他是我的朋友。 (He is my friend.
- 你已经是专家了。 You are an expert already.
- 你不是老板。 You are not the boss.
- 他有两头大象。 He has two elephants.
(This is the basic form of the 有 sentence.)
- 我还有时间。 I still have some time.
- 我没有钱。 I do not have any money.
- 我没零钱。 I don't have any small change.
When the object is simple, the negative form can omit 有.
Receiver (subject) + 被 agent (adverbial adjunct) + vebr + other elements
- 他被经理批评了。 (He was critized by the manager.
- 那个姑娘被绑架了。 The girl was kidnapped.
(Sometimes the agent of the action can be omitted — kidnapped by bad guys.)
- 工人的罢工被公司粉碎了。 The workers' strike was broken by the company.
(The predicate [粉碎] must be a transitive verb.)
The 把 sentence uses the preposition 把 with its object to act as an adverbial adjunct, which modifies a verb predicate. This kind of sentence places emphasis on a certain person or thing and the result or influence that it produces. The subject of a 把 sentence must be the agent of the action. The basic form of the 把 sentence is
Agent of the action (subject) + 把 reciever (adverbial adjunct) + verb (predicate)
- 她把雨伞丢了。 She lost the umbrella.
- 他把那张单子撕了。 He tore up that list.
(The predicate verb, 撕 in this case, must be a transitive verb.)
- 我还没把衣服洗干净。 I haven't finished washing the clothes yet.
Verbs that do not affect people or things cannot function as the predicate in a 把 sentence. For example, 是、有、在、象、等于、知道、认识、觉得、怕、喜欢愿意、开始、结束、进、去、坐、站、等。 Some predicate verbs are followed by complex structures. In these cases 把 sentences must be used. For example,
- 我把省下的菜放在冰箱里。 I put the left over food in the fridge.
- 她把两匹马牵到大门去了。 She led two horses to the main gate.
存现句 Existential Sentences
An existential sentence does not have a subject and the beginning of the sentence uses a place or time word or phrase to indicate the existence, appearance, or disappearance of a thing or person. For example,
- 昨天来了不少人。 Quite a few people came yesterday.
- 东边来了个喇嘛。 (A lama came from the East.)
兼语句 Pivotal Sentences
A pivotal sentence has two predicates, the first of which has an object that serves as the subject for the second predicate. This object is called the pivot. The basic form of the pivotal sentence is:
Subject + predicate 1 (verb) + pivot + predicate 2
- 我请你们吃饭。 (I will treat you all to the meal.)
- 老师叫我们唱歌。 The teacher asked us to sing a song.
- 警察让司机停车。 The policeman directed the driver to stop the car.
- 请（你吃饭）。 Please (eat).
连动句 Sentences with Verb Constructions in Series
Sentences with verb constructions in series have two or more verbs serving as predicates for the same subject. The basic form for sentences with verb constructions in series is
Subject + predicate 1 + (object 1) + predicate 2 + (object 2)
- 他骑车走了。 He took off riding a bicycle.
- 咱们到王府井玩去。 Let's go to Wangfujing to hangout.
- 我今天不能去给你买票。 I cannot go to buy you a ticket today.
- 咱们用中文讲。 Let's talk in Chinese.