凡音之起，由人心生也。人心之動，物使之然也。感於物而動，故形於聲。聲相應，故生變；變成方，謂之音；比音而樂之，及干戚羽旄，謂之樂。 All the modulations of the voice arise from the mind, and the various affections of the mind are produced by things (external to it). The affections thus produced are manifested in the sounds that are uttered. Changes are produced by the way in which those sounds respond to one another; and those changes constitute what we call the modulations of the voice. The combination' of those modulated sounds, so as to give pleasure, and the (direction in harmony with them of the) shields and axes, and of the plumes and ox-tails, constitutes what we call music.
樂者，音之所由生也；其本在人心之感於物也。是故其哀心感者，其聲噍以殺。其樂心感者，其聲嘽以緩。其喜心感者，其聲發以散。其怒心感者，其聲粗以厲。其敬心感者，其聲直以廉。其愛心感者，其聲和以柔。六者，非性也，感於物而後動。是故先王慎所以感之者。故禮以道其志，樂以和其聲，政以一其行，刑以防其奸。禮樂刑政，其極一也；所以同民心而出治道也。 Music is (thus) the production of the modulations of the voice, and its source is in the affections of the mind as it is influenced by (external) things. When the mind is moved to sorrow, the sound is sharp and fading away; when it is moved to pleasure, the sound is slow and gentle; when it is moved to joy, the sound is exclamatory and soon disappears; when it is moved to anger, the sound is coarse and fierce; when it is moved to reverence, the sound is straightforward, with an indication of humility; when it is moved to love, the sound is harmonious and soft. These six peculiarities of sound are not natural'; they indicate the impressions produced by (external) things. On this account the ancient kings were watchful in regard to the things by which the mind was affected. And so (they instituted) ceremonies to direct men's aims aright; music to give harmony to their voices; laws to unify their conduct; and punishments to guard against their tendencies to evil. The end to which ceremonies, music, punishments, and laws conduct is one; they are the instruments by which the minds of the people are assimilated, and good order in government is made to appear.
凡音者，生人心者也。情動於中，故形於聲。聲成文，謂之音。是故治世之音安以樂，其政和。亂世之音怨以怒，其政乖。亡國之音哀以思，其民困。 All modulations of the voice spring from the minds of men. When the feelings are moved within, they are manifested in the sounds of the voice; and when those sounds are combined so as to form compositions, we have what are called airs. Hence, the airs of an age of good order indicate composure and enjoyment. The airs of an age of disorder indicate dissatisfaction and anger, and its government is perversely bad. The airs of a state going to ruin are expressive of sorrow and (troubled) thought.
聲音之道，與政通矣。宮為君，商為臣，角為民，徵為事，羽為物。五者不亂，則無怗懘之音矣。宮亂則荒，其君驕。商亂則陂，其官壞。角亂則憂，其民怨。徵亂則哀，其事勤。羽亂則危，其財匱。五者皆亂，迭相陵，謂之慢。如此，則國之滅亡無日矣。 There is an interaction between the words and airs (of the people) and the character of their government. (The note) gong represents the ruler; shang, the ministers; jiao, the people; zhi, affairs; and yu, things. If there be no disorder or irregularity in these five notes, there will be no want of harmony in the state. If gong be irregular, (the air) is wild and broken; the ruler of the state is haughty. If shang be irregular, (the air) is jerky; the offices of the state are decayed. If jiao be irregular, (the air) expresses anxiety; the people are dissatisfied. If zhi be irregular, (the air) expresses sorrow; affairs are strained. If yu be irregular, (the air) is expressive of impending ruin; the resources (of the state) are exhausted. If the five notes are all irregular, and injuriously interfere with one another, they indicate a state of insolent disorder; and the state where this is the case will at no distant day meet with extinction and ruin.
鄭衛之音，亂世之音也，比於慢矣。桑間濮上之音，亡國之音也，其政散，其民流，誣上行私而不可止也。 The airs of Zheng and Wei were those of an age of disorder, showing that those states were near such an abandoned condition. The airs near the river Pu, at the mulberry forest, were those of a state going to ruin. The government (of Wei) was in a state of dissipation, and the people were unsettled, calumniating their superiors, and pursuing their private aims beyond the possibility of restraint.
凡音者，生於人心者也。樂者，通倫理者也。是故知聲而不知音者，禽獸是也；知音而不知樂者，眾庶是也。唯君子為能知樂。是故審聲以知音，審音以知樂，審樂以知政，而治道備矣。是故不知聲者不可與言音，不知音者不可與言樂。知樂則幾於禮矣。禮樂皆得，謂之有德。德者得也。 All modulations of sound take their rise from the mind of man; and music is the intercommunication of them in their relations and differences. Hence, even beasts know sound, but not its modulations, and the masses of the common people know the modulations, but they do not know music. It is only the superior man who can (really) know music. On this account we must discriminate sounds in order to know the airs; the airs in order to know the music; and the music in order to know (the character of) the government. Having attained to this, we are fully provided with the methods of good order. Hence with him who does not know the sounds we cannot speak about the airs, and with him who does not know the airs we cannot speak about the music. The knowledge of music leads to the subtle springs that underlie the rules of ceremony. He who has apprehended both ceremonies and music may be pronounced to be a possessor of virtue. Virtue means realisation (in one's self).
是故樂之隆，非極音也。食饗之禮，非致味也。清廟之瑟，朱弦而疏越，壹倡而三嘆，有遺音者矣。大饗之禮，尚玄酒而俎腥魚，大羹不和，有遺味者矣。是故先王之制禮樂也，非以極口腹耳目之欲也，將以教民平好惡而反人道之正也。 Hence the greatest achievements of music were not in the perfection of the airs; the (efficacy) of the ceremonies in the sacrificial offerings was not in the exquisiteness of the flavours. In the lute's for the Qing Miao the strings were of red (boiled) silk, and the holes were wide apart; one lute began, and (only) three others joined it; there was much melody not brought out. In the ceremonies of the great sacrifices, the dark-coloured liquor took precedence, and on the stands were uncooked fish, while the grand soup had no condiments: there was much flavour left undeveloped. Thus we see that the ancient kings, in their institution of ceremonies and music, did not seek how fully they could satisfy the desires of the appetite and of the ears and eyes; but they intended to teach the people to regulate their likings and dislikings, and to bring them back to the normal course of humanity.
人生而靜，天之性也；感於物而動，性之欲也。物至知知，然後好惡形焉。好惡無節於內，知誘於外，不能反躬，天理滅矣。 It belongs to the nature of man, as from Heaven, to be still at his birth. His activity shows itself as he is acted on by external things, and developes the desires incident to his nature. Things come to him more and more, and his knowledge is increased. Then arise the manifestations of liking and disliking. When these are not regulated by anything within, and growing knowledge leads more astray without, he cannot come back to himself, and his Heavenly principle is extinguished.
夫物之感人無窮，而人之好惡無節，則是物至而人化物也。人化物也者，滅天理而窮人欲者也。於是有悖逆詐偽之心，有淫泆作亂之事。是故強者脅弱，眾者暴寡，知者詐愚，勇者苦怯，疾病不養，老幼孤獨不得其所，此大亂之道也。 Now there is no end of the things by which man is affected; and when his likings and dislikings are not subject to regulation (from within), he is changed into the nature of things as they come before him; that is, he stifles the voice of Heavenly principle within, and gives the utmost indulgence to the desires by which men may be possessed. On this we have the rebellious and deceitful heart, with licentious and violent disorder. The strong press upon the weak; the many are cruel to the few; the knowing impose upon the dull; the bold make it bitter for the timid; the diseased are not nursed; the old and young, orphans and solitaries are neglected - such is the great disorder that ensues.
是故先王之制禮樂，人為之節；衰麻哭泣，所以節喪紀也；鐘鼓干戚，所以和安樂也；昏姻冠笄，所以別男女也；射鄉食饗，所以正交接也。禮節民心，樂和民聲，政以行之，刑以防之，禮樂刑政，四達而不悖，則王道備矣。 Therefore the ancient kings, when they instituted their ceremonies and music, regulated them by consideration of the requirements of humanity. By the sackcloth worn for parents, the wailings, and the weepings, they defined the terms of the mourning rites. By the bells, drums, shields, and axes, they introduced harmony into their seasons of rest and enjoyment. By marriage, capping, and the assumption of the hair-pin, they maintained the separation that should exist between male and female. By the archery gatherings in the districts, and the feastings at the meetings of princes, they provided for the correct maintenance of friendly intercourse. Ceremonies afforded the defined expression for the (affections of the) people's minds; music secured the harmonious utterance of their voices; the laws of government were designed to promote the performance (of the ceremonies and music); and punishments, to guard against the violation of them. When ceremonies, music, laws, and punishments had everywhere full course, without irregularity or collision, the method of kingly rule was complete.
樂者為同，禮者為異。同則相親，異則相敬，樂勝則流，禮勝則離。合情飾貌者禮樂之事也。禮義立，則貴賤等矣；樂文同，則上下和矣；好惡著，則賢不肖別矣。刑禁暴，爵舉賢，則政均矣。仁以愛之，義以正之，如此，則民治行矣。 Similarity and union are the aim of music; difference and distinction, that of ceremony. From union comes mutual affection; from difference, mutual respect. Where music prevails, we find a weak coalescence; where ceremony prevails, a tendency to separation. It is the business of the two to blend people's feelings and give elegance to their outward manifestations. Through the perception of right produced by ceremony, came the degrees of the noble and the mean; through the union of culture arising from music, harmony between high and low. By the exhibition of what was to be liked and what was to be disliked, a distinction was made between the worthy and unworthy. When violence was prevented by punishments, and the worthy were raised to rank, the operation of government was made impartial. Then came benevolence in the love (of the people), and righteousness in the correction (of their errors); and in this way good government held its course.
樂由中出，禮自外作。樂由中出故靜，禮自外作故文。大樂必易，大禮必簡。樂至則無怨，禮至則不爭。揖讓而治天下者，禮樂之謂也。暴民不作，諸侯賓服，兵革不試，五刑不用，百姓無患，天子不怒，如此，則樂達矣。合父子之親，明長幼之序，以敬四海之內天子如此，則禮行矣。 Music comes from within, and ceremonies from without. Music, coming from within, produces the stillness (of the mind); ceremonies, coming from without, produce the elegancies (of manner). The highest style of music is sure to be distinguished by its ease; the highest style of elegance, by its undemonstrativeness. Let music attain its full results, and there would be no dissatisfactions (in the mind); let ceremony do so, and there would be no quarrels. When bowings and courtesies marked the government of the kingdom, there would be what might be described as music and ceremony indeed. Violent oppression of the people would not arise; the princes would appear submissively at court as guests; there would be no occasion for the weapons of war, and no employment of the five punishments; the common people would have no distresses, and the son of Heaven no need to be angry - such a state of things would be an universal music. When the son of Heaven could secure affection between father and son, could illustrate the orderly relation between old and young, and make mutual respect prevail all within the four seas, then indeed would ceremony (be seen) as power.
大樂與天地同和，大禮與天地同節。和故百物不失，節故祀天祭地，明則有禮樂，幽則有鬼神。如此，則四海之內，合敬同愛矣。禮者殊事合敬者也；樂者異文合愛者也。禮樂之情同，故明王以相沿也。故事與時并，名與功偕。 In music of the grandest style there is the same harmony that prevails between heaven and earth; in ceremonies of the grandest form there is the same graduation that exists between heaven and earth. Through the harmony, things do not fail (to fulfil their ends); through the graduation we have the sacrifices to heaven and those to earth. In the visible sphere there are ceremonies and music; in the invisible, the spiritual agencies. These things being so, in all within the four seas, there must be mutual respect and love. The occasions and forms of ceremonies are different, but it is the same feeling of respect (which they express). The styles of musical pieces are different, but it is the same feeling of love (which they promote). The essential nature of ceremonies and music being the same, the intelligent kings, one after another, continued them as they found them. The occasions and forms were according to the times when they were made; the names agreed with the merit which they commemorated.
Hence the bell, the drum, the flute, and the sounding-stone; the plume, the fife, the shield, and the axe are the instruments of music; the curvings and stretchings (of the body), the bending down and lifting up (of the head); and the evolutions and numbers (of the performers), with the slowness or rapidity (of their movements), are its elegant accompaniments. The dishes, round and square, the stands, the standing dishes, the prescribed rules and their elegant variations, are the instruments of ceremonies; the ascending and descending, the positions high and low, the wheelings about, and the changing of robes, are their elegant accompaniments. Therefore they who knew the essential nature of ceremonies and music could frame them; and they who had learned their elegant accompaniments could hand them down. The framers may be pronounced sage; the transmitters, intelligent. Intelligence and sagehood are other names for transmitting and inventing.
樂者，天地之和也；禮者，天地之序也。和故百物皆化；序故群物皆別。樂由天作，禮以地制。過制則亂，過作則暴。明於天地，然後能興禮樂也。 Music is (an echo of) the harmony between heaven and earth; ceremonies reflect the orderly distinctions (in the operations of) heaven and earth. From that harmony all things receive their being; to those orderly distinctions they owe the differences between them. Music has its origin from heaven; ceremonies take their form from the appearances of earth. If the imitation of those appearances were carried to excess, confusion (of ceremonies) would appear; if the framing of music were carried to excess, it would be too vehement. Let there be an intelligent understanding of the nature and interaction of (heaven and earth), and there will be the ability to practise well both ceremonies and music.
論倫無患，樂之情也；欣喜歡愛，樂之官也。中正無邪，禮之質也，莊敬恭順。禮之制也。若夫禮樂之施於金石，越於聲音，用於宗廟社稷，事乎山川鬼神，則此所與民同也。 The blending together without any mutual injuriousness (of the sentiments and the airs on the different instruments) forms the essence of music; and the exhilaration of joy and the glow of affection are its business. Exactitude and correctness, without any inflection or deviation, form the substance of ceremonies, while gravity, respectfulness, and a humble consideration are the rules for their discharge. As to the employment of instruments of metal and stone in connexion with these ceremonies and this music, the manifestation of them by the voice and its modulations, the use of them in the ancestral temple, and at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain, and in sacrificing to (the spirits of) the hills and streams, and to the general spiritual agencies (in nature) - these are (external demonstrations), natural even to the people.
王者功成作樂，治定制禮。其功大者其樂備，其治辯者其禮具。干戚之舞非備樂也，孰亨而祀非達禮也。五帝殊時，不相沿樂；三王異世，不相襲禮。樂極則憂，禮粗則偏矣。及夫敦樂而無憂，禮備而不偏者，其唯大聖乎？ When the (ancient) kings had accomplished their undertakings, they made their music (to commemorate them); when they had established their government, they framed their ceremonies. The excellence of their music was according to the greatness of their undertakings; and the completeness of their ceremonies was according to the comprehensiveness of their government. The dances with shields and axes did not belong to the most excellent music, nor did the sacrifices with cooked flesh mark the highest ceremonies. The times of the five Dis were different, and therefore they did not each adopt the music of his predecessor. The three kings belonged to different ages, and so they did not each follow the ceremonies of his predecessor. Music carried to an extreme degree leads to sorrow, and coarseness in ceremonies indicates something one-sided. To make the grandest music, which should bring with it no element of sorrow, and frame the completest ceremonies which yet should show no one-sidedness, could be the work only of the great sage.
天高地下，萬物散殊，而禮制行矣。流而不息，合同而化，而樂興焉。春作夏長，仁也；秋斂冬藏，義也。仁近於樂，義近於禮。樂者敦和，率神而從天，禮者別宜，居鬼而從地。故聖人作樂以應天，制禮以配地。禮樂明備，天地官矣。 There are heaven above and earth below, and between them are distributed all the (various) beings with their different (natures and qualities) - in accordance with this proceeded the framing of ceremonies. (The influences of) heaven and earth flow forth and never cease; and by their united action (the phenomena of) production and change ensue - in accordance with this music arose. The processes of growth in spring, and of maturing in summer (suggest the idea of) benevolence; those of in-gathering in autumn and of storing in winter, suggest righteousness. Benevolence is akin to music, and righteousness to ceremonies. Harmony is the thing principally sought in music - it therein follows heaven, and manifests the spirit-like expansive influence characteristic of it. Normal distinction is the thing aimed at in ceremonies - they therein follow earth, and exhibit the spirit-like retractive influence characteristic of it. Hence the sages made music in response to heaven, and framed ceremonies in correspondence with earth. In the wisdom and-completeness of their ceremonies and music we see the directing power of heaven and earth.
天尊地卑，君臣定矣。卑高已陳，貴賤位矣。動靜有常，小大殊矣。方以類聚，物以群分，則性命不同矣。在天成象，在地成形；如此，則禮者天地之別也。 (The relation) between ruler and minister was determined from a consideration of heaven (conceived of as) honourable, and earth (conceived of as) mean. The positions of noble and mean were fixed with a reference to the heights and depths displayed by the surface (of the earth). The regularity with which movement and repose follow each other (in the course of nature) led to the consideration of affairs as small and great. The different quarters (of the heavens) are grouped together, and the things (of the earth) are distinguished by their separate characteristics; and this gave rise to (the conception of) natures and their attributes and functions. In heaven there are formed its visible signs, and earth produces its (endless variety of) things; and thus it was that ceremonies were framed after the distinction, between heaven and earth.
地氣上齊，天氣下降，陰陽相摩，天地相蕩，鼓之以雷霆，奮之以風雨，動之以四時，暖之以日月，而百化興焉。如此則樂者天地之和也。 The breath (or influence) of earth ascends on high, and that of heaven descends below. These in their repressive and expansive powers come into mutual contact, and heaven and earth act on each other. (The susceptibilities of nature) are roused by the thunder, excited by the wind and rain, moved by the four seasons, and warmed by the sun and moon; and all the processes of change and growth vigorously proceed. Thus it was that music was framed to indicate the harmonious action of heaven and earth.
化不時則不生，男女無辨則亂升；天地之情也。及夫禮樂之極乎天而蟠乎地，行乎陰陽而通乎鬼神；窮高極遠而測深厚。樂著大始，而禮居成物。著不息者天也，著不動者地也。一動一靜者天地之間也。故聖人曰禮樂云。 If these processes took place out of season, there would be no (vigorous) life; and if no distinction were observed between males and females, disorder would arise and grow - such is the nature of the (different qualities of) heaven and earth. When we think of ceremonies and music, how they reach to the height of heaven and embrace the earth; how there are in them the phenomena of retrogression and expansion, and a communication with the spirit-like (operations of nature), we must pronounce their height the highest, their reach the farthest, their depth the most profound, and their breadth the greatest. Music appeared in the Grand Beginning (of all things), and ceremonies had their place on the completion of them. Their manifestation, being ceaseless, gives (the idea of) heaven; and again, being motionless, gives (the idea of) earth. Through the movement and repose (of their interaction) come all things between heaven and earth. Hence the sages simply spoke of ceremonies and music.
昔者，舜作五弦之琴以歌南風，夔始制樂以賞諸侯。 Anciently, Shun made the lute with five strings, and used it in singing the Nan Feng. Kui was the first who composed (the pieces of) music to be employed by the feudal lords as an expression of (the royal) approbation of them.
故天子之為樂也，以賞諸侯之有德者也。德盛而教尊，五穀時熟，然後賞之以樂。故其治民勞者，其舞行綴遠；其治民逸者，其舞行綴短。故觀其舞，知其德；聞其謚，知其行也。 Thus the employment of music by the son of Heaven was intended to reward the most virtuous among the feudal lords. When their virtue was very great, and their instructions were honoured, and all the cereals ripened in their season, then they were rewarded by (being permitted) the use of the music. Hence, those of them whose toils in the government of the people were conspicuous, had their rows of pantomimes extended far; and those of them who had been indifferent to the government of the people had those rows made short. On seeing their pantomimes, one knew what was (the degree of) their virtue, (just as) on hearing their posthumous designations, we know what had been (the character of) their conduct.
《大章》，章之也。《咸池》，備矣。《韶》，繼也。《夏》，大也。殷周之樂，盡矣。 The Da Zhang expressed the brilliance (of its author's virtue); the Xian Chi, the completeness (of its author's); the Shao showed how (its author) continued (the virtue of his predecessor); the Xia, the greatness (of its author's virtue); the music of Yin and Zhou embraced every admirable quality.
天地之道，寒暑不時則疾，風雨不節則饑。教者，民之寒暑也；教不時則傷世。事者民之風雨也；事不節則無功。然則先王之為樂也。以法治也，善則行象德矣。 In the interaction of heaven and earth, if cold and heat do not come at the proper seasons, illnesses arise (among the people); if wind and rain do not come in their due proportions, famine ensues. The instructions (of their superiors) are the people's cold and heat; if they are not what the time requires, an injury is done to society. The affairs (of their superiors) are the people's wind and rain; if they are not properly regulated, they have no success. In accordance with this, the object of the ancient kings in their practice of music was to bring their government into harmony with those laws (of heaven and earth). If it was good, then the conduct (of the people) was like the virtue (of their superiors).
夫豢豕為酒，非以為禍也，而獄訟益繁，則酒之流生禍也。是故先王因為酒禮，壹獻之禮，賓主百拜，終日飲酒而不得醉焉；此先王之所以備酒禍也。故酒食者所以合歡也；樂者所以象德也；禮者所以綴淫也。 (The feast on) grain-fed animals, with the adjunct of drinking, was not intended to produce evil, and yet cases of litigation are more numerous in consequence of it - it is the excessive drinking which produces the evil. Therefore the former kings framed the rules to regulate the drinking. Where there is (but) one presentation of the cup (at one time), guest and host may bow to each other a hundred times, and drink together all the day without getting drunk. This was the way in which those kings provided against evil consequences. Such feasts served for the enjoyment of the parties at them. The music was intended to illustrate virtue; the ceremonies to restrain excess.
是故先王有大事，必有禮以哀之；有大福，必有禮以樂之。哀樂之分，皆以禮終。樂也者，聖人之所樂也，而可以善民心，其感人深，其移風易俗，故先王著其教焉。 Hence the former kings, on occasions of great sorrow, had their rules according to which they expressed their grief; and on occasions of great happiness, they had their rules by which they expressed their pleasure. The manifestations, whether of grief or joy, were all bounded by the limits of these rules. In music the sages found pleasure, and (saw that) it could be used to make the hearts of the people good. Because of the deep influence which it exerts on a man, and the change which it produces in manners and customs, the ancient kings appointed it as one of the subjects of instruction.
Now, in the nature of men there are both the energy of their physical powers and the intelligence of the mind; but for their (affections of) grief, pleasure, joy, and anger there are no invariable rules. They are moved according to the external objects which excite them, and then there ensues the manifestation of the various faculties of the mind. Hence, when a (ruler's) aims are small, notes that quickly die away characterise the music, and the people's thoughts are sad; when he is generous, harmonious, and of a placid and easy temper, the notes are varied and elegant, with frequent changes, and the people are satisfied and pleased; when he is coarse, violent, and excitable, the notes, vehement at first and distinct in the end, are full and bold throughout the piece, and the people are resolute and daring; when he is pure and straightforward, strong and correct, the notes are grave and expressive of sincerity, and the people are self-controlled and respectful; when he is magnanimous, placid, and kind, the notes are natural, full, and harmonious, and the people are affectionate and loving; when he is careless, disorderly, perverse, and dissipated, the notes are tedious and ill-regulated, and the people proceed to excesses and disorder.
是故先王本之情性，稽之度數，制之禮義。合生氣之和，道五常之行，使之陽而不散，陰而不密，剛氣不怒，柔氣不懾，四暢交於中而發作於外，皆安其位而不相奪也；然後立之學等，廣其節奏，省其文采，以繩德厚。律小大之稱，比終始之序，以象事行。使親疏貴賤、長幼男女之理，皆形見於樂，故曰：「樂觀其深矣。」 Therefore the ancient kings (in framing their music), laid its foundations in the feelings and nature of men; they examined (the notes) by the measures (for the length and quality of each); and adapted it to express the meaning of the ceremonies (in which it was to be used). They (thus) brought it into harmony with the energy that produces life, and to give expression to the performance of the five regular constituents of moral worth. They made it indicate that energy in its Yang or phase of vigour, without any dissipation of its power, and also in its Yin or phase of remission, without the vanishing of its power. The strong phase showed no excess like that of anger, and the weak no shrinking like that of pusillanimity. These four characteristics blended harmoniously in the minds of men, and were similarly manifested in their conduct. Each occupied quietly in its proper place, and one did not interfere injuriously with another. After this they established schools for (teaching their music), and different grades (for the learners). They marked most fully the divisions of the pieces, and condensed into small compass the parts and variations giving beauty and elegance, in order to regulate and increase the inward virtue (of the learners). They gave laws for the great and small notes according to their names, and harmonised the order of the beginning and the end, to represent the doing of things. Thus they made the underlying principles of the relations between the near and distant relatives, the noble and mean, the old and young, males and females, all to appear manifestly in the music. Hence it is said that 'in music we must endeavour to see its depths.'
土敝則草木不長，水煩則魚鱉不大，氣衰則生物不遂，世亂則禮慝而樂淫。是故其聲哀而不莊，樂而不安，慢易以犯節，流湎以忘本。廣則容奸，狹則思欲，感條暢之氣而滅平和之德。是以君子賤之也。 When the soil is worn out, the grass and trees on it do. not grow well. When water is often troubled, the fish and tortoises in it do not become large. When the energy (of nature) is decayed, its production of things does not proceed freely. In an age of disorder, ceremonies are forgotten and neglected, and music becomes licentious. In such a case the notes are melancholy but without gravity, or joyous without repose. There is remissness (in ceremonies) and the violation of them is easy. One falls into such a state of dissoluteness that he forgets the virtue properly belonging to his nature. In great matters he is capable of treachery and villainy; in small matters he becomes greedy and covetous. There is a diminution in him of the enduring, genial forces of nature, and an extinction of the virtue of satisfaction and harmony. On this account the Superior man despises such (a style of music and ceremonies).
凡奸聲感人，而逆氣應之；逆氣成象，而淫樂興焉。正聲感人，而順氣應之；順氣成象，而和樂興焉。倡和有應，回邪曲直，各歸其分；而萬物之理，各以其類相動也。是故君子反情以和其志，比類以成其行。奸聲亂色，不留聰明；淫樂慝禮，不接心術。惰慢邪辟之氣不設於身體，使耳目鼻口、心知百體皆由順正以行其義。 Whenever notes that are evil and depraved affect men, a corresponding evil spirit responds to them (from within); and when this evil spirit accomplishes its manifestations, licentious music is the result. Whenever notes that are correct affect men, a corresponding correct spirit responds to them (from within); and when this correct spirit accomplishes its manifestations, harmonious music is the result. The initiating cause and the result correspond to each other. The round and the deflected, the crooked and the straight, have each its own category; and such is the character of all things, that they affect one another severally according to their class. Hence the superior man returns to the (good) affections (proper to his nature) in order to bring his will into harmony with them, and compares the different qualities (of actions) in order to perfect his conduct. Notes that are evil and depraved, and sights leading to disorder, and licentiousness, are not allowed to affect his ears or eyes. Licentious music and corrupted ceremonies are not admitted into the mind to affect its powers. The spirit of idleness, indifference, depravity, and perversity finds no exhibition in his person. And thus he makes his ears, eyes, nose, and mouth, the apprehensions of his mind, and the movements of all the parts of his body, all follow the course that is correct, and do that which is right.
然後發以聲音，而文以琴瑟，動以干戚，飾以羽旄，從以簫管。奮至德之光，動四氣之和，以著萬物之理。是故清明象天，廣大象地，終始象四時，周還象風雨。五色成文而不亂，八風從律而不奸，百度得數而有常。小大相成，終始相生。倡和清濁，迭相為經。故樂行而倫清，耳目聰明，血氣和平，移風易俗，天下皆寧。 After this there ensues the manifestation (of the inward thoughts) by the modulations of note and tone, the elegant accompaniments of the lutes, small and large, the movements with the shield and battleaxe, the ornaments of the plumes and ox-tails, and the concluding with the pipes and flutes. All this has the effect of exhibiting the brilliance of complete virtue, stirring up the harmonious action of the four (seasonal) energies; and displaying the true natures and qualities of all things. Hence in the fine and distinct notes we have an image of heaven; in the ample and grand, an image of earth; in their beginning and ending, an image of the four seasons; in the wheelings and revolutions (of the pantomimes), an image of the wind and rain. (The five notes, like) the five colours, form a complete and elegant whole, without any confusion. (The eight instruments of different materials, like) the eight winds, follow the musical accords, without any irregular deviation. The lengths of all the different notes have their definite measurements, without any uncertainty. The small and the great complete one another. The end leads on to the beginning, and the beginning to the end. The key notes and those harmonising with them, the sharp and the bass, succeed one another in their regular order. Therefore, when the music has full course, the different relations are clearly defined by it; the perceptions of the ears and eyes become sharp and distinct; the action of the blood and physical energies is harmonious and calm; (bad) influences are removed, and manners changed; and all under heaven there is entire repose.
故曰：樂者樂也。君子樂得其道，小人樂得其欲。以道制欲，則樂而不亂；以欲忘道，則惑而不樂。 Hence we have the saying, 'Where there is music there is joy.' Superior men rejoice in attaining to the course (which they wish to pursue); and smaller men in obtaining the things which they desire. When the objects of desire are regulated by a consideration of the course to be pursued, there is joy without any disorder. When those objects lead to the forgetfulness of that course, there is delusion, and no joy.
是故君子反情以和其志，廣樂以成其教，樂行而民鄉方，可以觀德矣。德者性之端也。樂者德之華也。金石絲竹，樂之器也。詩言其志也，歌詠其聲也，舞動其容也。三者本於心，然後樂氣從之。是故情深而文明，氣盛而化神。和順積中而英華發外，唯樂不可以為偽。 It is for this purpose that the superior man returns to the (good) affections (proper to his nature), in order to bring his will into harmony with them, and makes extensive use of music in order to perfect his instructions. When the music has free course, the people direct themselves to the quarter (to which they should proceed), and we can see (the power of) his virtue. Virtue is the strong stein of (man's) nature, and music is the blossoming of virtue. Metal, stone, silk, and bamboo are (the materials of which) the instruments of music (are made). Poetry gives expression to the thoughts; singing prolongs the notes (of the voice); pantomimic movements put the body into action (in harmony with the sentiments). These three things originate in the mind, and the instruments of the music accompany them. In this way the affections (from which comes the music) are deeply seated, and the elegant display of them is brilliant. All the energies (of the nature) are abundantly employed, and their transforming power is mysterious and spirit-like. A harmonious conformity (to virtue) is realised within, and the blossoming display of it is conspicuous without, for in music, more than other things, there should be nothing that is pretentious or hypocritical.
樂者，心之動也；聲者，樂之象也。文采節奏，聲之飾也。君子動其本。 Music springs from the movement of the mind; the notes are the manifestation of the music; the elegant colours and various parts are the ornaments of the notes. The superior man puts its fundamental cause in movement, makes its manifesting notes into music, and regulates its ornaments.
樂其象，然後治其飾。是故先鼓以警戒，三步以見方，再始以著往，復亂以飭歸。奮疾而不拔，極幽而不隱。獨樂其志，不厭其道；備舉其道，不私其欲。是故情見而義立，樂終而德尊。君子以好善，小人以聽過。故曰：生民之道，樂為大焉。 Thus they first strike the drum to warn (the performers) to be in readiness, and (the pantomimes) take three steps to show the nature of the dance. This is done a second time and they begin to move forward; and when they have completed their evolutions, they return and dress their ranks. However rapid their movements may be, there is nothing violent in them; however mysterious they may be, they are not beyond the power of being understood. One, studying them alone, finds pleasure in the object of them, and does not tire in his endeavours to understand them. When he has fully understood them, he does not keep what he desires to himself. Thus the affections (of joy) are displayed; the (ideal) of righteousness is established; and when the music is ended, the (due) honour has been paid to virtue. Superior men by it nourish their love of what is good; small men in it hear the (correction of) their errors. Hence it is said, that 'for the courses to be pursued by men the influence of music is great.'
樂也者施也；禮也者報也。樂，樂其所自生；而禮，反其所自始。樂章德，禮報情反始也。 In music we have the outcome and bestowal (of what its framers felt); in ceremonies a return (for what their performers had received). Music expresses the delight in what produces it, and ceremonies lead the mind back to (the favours) which originate them. Music displays the virtue (of the framer); ceremonies are a return of the feelings (which led to them), as carrying the mind back to what originated them.
所謂大輅者，天子之車也。龍旗九旒，天子之旌也。青黑緣者，天子之寶龜也。從之以牛羊之群，則所以贈諸侯也。 What is called 'a Grand carriage' is one which is (the gift) of the son of Heaven; the flag with dragons, and a nine-scolloped border, was the banner (conferred by) the son of Heaven; that with the azure and black edging exhibited the precious tortoises, and was (also the gift of) the son of Heaven; and when these were followed by herds of oxen and sheep, they were the gifts bestowed on the feudal lords.
樂也者，情之不可變者也。禮也者，理之不可易者也。樂統同，禮辨異，禮樂之說，管乎人情矣。 In music we have the expression of feelings which do not admit of any change; in ceremonies that of principles which do not admit of any alteration. Music embraces what all equally share; ceremony distinguishes the things in which men differ. Hence the theory of music and ceremonies embraces the whole nature of man.
窮本知變，樂之情也；著誠去偽，禮之經也。禮樂偩天地之情，達神明之德，降興上下之神，而凝是精粗之體，領父子君臣之節。 To go to the very root (of our feelings) and know the changes (which they undergo) is the province of music; to display sincerity and put away all that is hypocritical is the grand law of ceremonies. Ceremonies and music resemble the nature of Heaven and Earth, penetrate to the virtues of the spiritual Intelligences, bring down the spirits from above, and raise up those whose seat is below. They give a sort of substantial embodiment of what is most subtle as well as material, and regulate the duties between father and son, ruler and subject.
是故大人舉禮樂，則天地將為昭焉。天地欣合，陰陽相得，煦嫗覆育萬物，然後草木茂，區萌達，羽翼奮，角觡生，蟄蟲昭蘇，羽者嫗伏，毛者孕鬻，胎生者不殰，而卵生者不殈，則樂之道歸焉耳。 Therefore, when the Great man uses and exhibits his ceremonies and music, Heaven and Earth will in response to him display their brilliant influences. They will act in happy union, and the energies (of nature), now expanding, now contracting, will proceed harmoniously. The genial airs from above and the responsive action below will overspread and nourish all things. Then plants and trees will grow luxuriantly; curling sprouts and buds will expand; the feathered and winged tribes will be active; horns and antlers will grow; insects will come to the light and revive; birds will breed and brood; the hairy tribes will mate and bring forth; the mammalia will have no abortions, and no eggs will be broken or addled - and all will have to be ascribed to the power of music.
樂者，非謂黃鐘大呂弦歌干揚也，樂之末節也，故童者舞之。鋪筵席，陳尊俎，列籩豆，以升降為禮者，禮之末節也，故有司掌之。樂師辨乎聲詩，故北面而弦；宗祝辨乎宗廟之禮，故後尸；商祝辨乎喪禮，故後主人。是故德成而上，藝成而下；行成而先，事成而後。是故先王有上有下，有先有後，然後可以有制於天下也。 When we speak of music we do not mean the notes emitted by the Guang Zhong, Da Lu, (and the other musical pipes), the stringed instruments and the singing, or the (brandishing of the) shields and axes. These are but the small accessories of the music; and hence lads act as the pantomimes. (In the same way), the spreading of the mats, the disposing of the vases, and the arranging of the stands and dishes, with the movements in ascending and descending, are but the small accessories of ceremonies; and hence there are the (smaller) officers who direct them. The music-masters decide on the tunes and the pieces of poetry; and hence they have their places with their stringed instruments, and their faces directed to the north. The prayer-officers of the ancestral temple decide on the various ceremonies in it, and hence they keep behind the representatives of the deceased. Those who direct the mourning rites after the manner of the Shang dynasty, have their places (for the same reason) behind the presiding mourner. It is for this reason that the practice of virtue is held to be of superior worth, and the practice of any art of inferior; that complete virtue takes the first place, and the doing of anything, (however ingenious, only) the second. Therefore the ancient kings had their distinctions of superior and inferior, of first and last; and so they could frame their music and ceremonies for the whole kingdom.
魏文侯問於子夏曰：「吾端冕而聽古樂，則唯恐臥；聽鄭衛之音，則不知倦。敢問：古樂之如彼何也？新樂之如此何也？」 The marquis Wen of Wei asked Zi-xia, saying, 'When in my square-cut dark robes and cap I listen to the ancient music, I am only afraid that I shall go to sleep. When I listen to the music of Kang and Wei, I do not feel tired; let me ask why I should feel so differently under the old and the new music.'
子夏對曰：「今夫古樂，進旅退旅，和正以廣。弦匏笙簧，會守拊鼓，始奏以文，復亂以武，治亂以相，訊疾以雅。君子於是語，於是道古，修身及家，平均天下。此古樂之發也。 Zi-xia replied, 'In the old music, (the performers) advance and retire all together; the music is harmonious, correct, and in large volume; the stringed instruments (above) and those made from gourd shells with the organs and their metal tongues (below), are all kept waiting for the striking of the drum. The music first strikes up at the sound of the drum; and when it ends, it is at the sound of the cymbals. The close of each part of the performance is regulated by the Xiang, and the rapidity of the motions by the Ya. In (all) this the superior man speaks of, and follows, the way of antiquity. The character is cultivated; the family is regulated; and peace and order are secured throughout the kingdom. This is the manner of the ancient music.
今夫新樂，進俯退俯，奸聲以濫，溺而不止；及優侏儒，糅雜子女，不知父子。樂終不可以語，不可以道古。此新樂之發也。今君之所問者樂也，所好者音也！夫樂者，與音相近而不同。」 'But now, in the new music, (the performers) advance and retire without any regular order; the music is corrupt to excess; there is no end to its vileness. Among the players there are dwarfs like monkeys, while boys and girls are mixed together, and there is no distinction between father and son. Such music can never be talked about, and cannot be said to be after the manner of antiquity. This is the fashion of the new music. What you ask about is music; and what you like is sound. Now music and sound are akin, but they are not the same.'
文侯曰：「敢問何如？」子夏對曰：「夫古者，天地順而四時當，民有德而五穀昌，疾疢不作而無妖祥，此之謂大當。然後聖人作為父子君臣，以為紀綱。紀綱既正，天下大定。天下大定，然後正六律，和五聲，弦歌詩頌，此之謂德音；德音之謂樂。《詩》云：『莫其德音，其德克明。克明克類，克長克君，王此大邦；克順克俾，俾於文王，其德靡悔。既受帝祉，施於孫子。』此之謂也。今君之所好者，其溺音乎？」 The marquis asked him to explain, and Zi-xia replied, 'In antiquity, Heaven and Earth acted according to their several natures, and the four seasons were what they ought to be. The people were virtuous, and all the cereals produced abundantly. There were no fevers or other diseases, and no apparitions or other prodigies. This was what we call "the period of great order." After this arose the sages, and set forth the duties between father and son, and between ruler and subject, for the guidance of society. When these guiding rules were thus correctly adjusted, all under heaven, there was a great tranquillity; after which they framed with exactness the six accords (upper and lower), and gave harmony to the five notes (of the scale), and the singing to the lutes of the odes and praise-songs; constituting what we call "the virtuous airs." Such virtuous airs constituted what we call "Music," as is declared in the Book of Poetry (III, i, ode 7, 4), 'Silently grew the fame of his virtue, His virtue was highly intelligent; Highly intelligent, and of rare discrimination; Able to lead, able to rule, To rule over this great country, Rendering a cordial submission, effecting a cordial union. When (the sway) came to king Wen, His virtue left nothing to be dissatisfied with. He received the blessing of God, And it was extended to his descendants." May I not say that what you love are the vile airs?'
文侯曰：「敢問溺音何從出也？」子夏對曰：「鄭音好濫淫志，宋音燕女溺志，衛音趨數煩志，齊音敖辟喬志；此四者皆淫於色而害於德，是以祭祀弗用也。《詩》云：『肅雍和鳴，先祖是聽。』夫肅肅，敬也；雍雍，和也。夫敬以和，何事不行？ The marquis said, "Let me ask where the vile airs come from?' Zi-xia replied, 'The airs of Zheng go to a wild excess, and debauch the mind; those of Song tell of slothful indulgence and women, and drown the mind; those of Wei are vehement and rapid, and perplex the mind; and those of Qi are violent and depraved, and make the mind arrogant. The airs of those four states all stimulate libidinous desire, and are injurious to virtue;--they should therefore not be used at sacrifices. It is said in the Book of Poetry (IV, i [Part ii], ode 5), "In solemn unison (the instruments) give forth their notes; Our ancestors will hearken to them." That solemn unison denotes the grave reverence and harmony of their notes - with reverence, blended with harmony, what is there that cannot be done?
為人君者謹其所好惡而已矣。君好之，則臣為之。上行之，則民從之。《詩》云：『誘民孔易』，此之謂也。」然後，聖人作為鞉、鼓、椌、楬、塤、篪，此六者德音之音也。然後鐘磬竽瑟以和之，干戚旄狄以舞之，此所以祭先王之廟也，所以獻酬酳酢也，所以官序貴賤各得其宜也，所以示後世有尊卑長幼之序也。 'A ruler has only to be careful of what he likes and dislikes. What the ruler likes, his ministers will practise; and what superiors do, their inferiors follow. This is the sentiment in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 10, 6), "To lead the people is very easy." Seeing this, and after (the repose of the people was secured), the sages made hand-drums and drums, the stopper and the starter, the earthen whistle and the bamboo flute - the six instruments which produced the sounds of their virtuous airs. After these came the bell, the sounding-stone, the organ with thirty-six pipes, and the large lute, to be played in harmony with them; the shields, axes, ox-tails, and plumes, brandished by the pantomimes in time and tune. These they employed at the sacrifices in the temple of the former kings, at festivals in offering and receiving the pledge cup; in arranging the services of officers (in the temple) according to the rank due to each, as noble or mean, and in showing to future ages how they observed the order due to rank and to age.
鐘聲鏗，鏗以立號，號以立橫，橫以立武。君子聽鐘聲則思武臣。石聲磬，磬以立辨，辨以致死。君子聽磬聲則思死封疆之臣。絲聲哀，哀以立廉，廉以立志。君子聽琴瑟之聲則思志義之臣。竹聲濫，濫以立會，會以聚眾。君子聽竽笙簫管之聲，則思畜聚之臣。鼓鼙之聲讙，讙以立動，動以進眾。君子聽鼓鼙之聲，則思將帥之臣。君子之聽音，非聽其鏗槍而已也，彼亦有所合之也。 'The bells give out a clanging sound as a signal. The signal is recognised by all, and that recognition produces a martial enthusiasm. When the ruler hears the sound of the bell, he thinks of his officers of war. The sounding-stones give out a tinkling sound, as a summons to the exercise of discrimination. That discrimination may lead to the encountering of death. When the ruler hears the sounding-stone, he thinks of his officers who die in defence of his frontiers. The stringed instruments give out a melancholy sound, which produces the thought of purity and fidelity, and awakens the determination of the mind. When the ruler hears the sound of the lute and cithern, he thinks of his officers who are bent on righteousness. The instruments of bamboo give out a sound like that of overflowing waters, which suggests the idea of an assembly, the object of which is to collect the multitudes together. When the ruler hears the sound of his organs, pipes, and flutes, he thinks of his officers who gather the people together. The drums and tambours give out their loud volume of sound, which excites the idea of movement, and tends to the advancing of the host. When the ruler hears the sounds of his drums and tambours, he thinks of his leaders and commanders. When a superior man thus hears his musical instruments, he does not hear only the sounds which they emit. There are associated ideas which accompany these.'
賓牟賈侍坐於孔子，孔子與之言及樂，曰：「夫《武》之備戒之已久，何也？」對曰：「病不得眾也。」 Bin-mou Jia was sitting with Confucius. Confucius talked with him about music, and said, 'At (the performance of) the Wu, how is it that the preliminary warning (of the drum) continues so long?' The answer was, 'To show (the king's) anxiety that all his multitudes should be of one mind with him.'
「詠嘆之，淫液之，何也？」對曰：「恐不逮事也。」 'How is it that (when the performance has commenced) the singers drawl their notes so long, and the pantomimes move about till they perspire?' The answer was, 'To show his apprehension that some (princes) might not come up in time for the engagement.'
「發揚蹈厲之已蚤，何也？」對曰：「及時事也。」 'How is it that the violent movement of the arms and stamping fiercely with the feet begin so soon?' The answer was, 'To show that the time for the engagement had arrived.'
「武坐致右憲左，何也？」對曰：「非武坐也。」 'How is it that, (in the performance of the Wu,) the pantomimes kneel on the ground with the right knee, while the left is kept up?' The answer was, 'There should be no kneeling in the Wu.'
「聲淫及商，何也？」對曰：「非《武》音也。」 'How is it that the words of the singers go on to speak eagerly of Shang?' The answer was, 'There should be no such sounds in the Wu.'
子曰：「若非《武》音，則何音也？」對曰：「有司失其傳也。若非有司失其傳，則武王之志荒矣。」子曰：「唯！丘之聞諸萇弘，亦若吾子之言是也。」 'But if there should be no such sound in the Wu, where does it come from?' The answer was, 'The officers (of the music) failed to hand it down correctly. If they did not do so, the aim of king Wu would have been reckless and wrong.' The Master said, 'Yes, what I heard from Chang Hong was to the same effect as what you now say.'
賓牟賈起，免席而請曰：「夫《武》之備戒之已久，則既聞命矣，敢問：遲之遲而又久，何也？」 Bin-mao Jia rose up, left his mat, and addressed Confucius, saying, 'On the long-continued warning (of the drum) in the Wu, I have heard your instructions; but let me ask how it is that after that first delay there is another, and that a long one?'
子曰：「居！吾語汝。夫樂者，象成者也；總干而山立，武王之事也；發揚蹈厲，大公之志也。《武》亂皆坐，周、召之治也。且夫《武》，始而北出，再成而滅商。三成而南，四成而南國是疆，五成而分周公左召公右，六成復綴以崇。天子夾振之而駟伐，盛威於中國也。分夾而進，事早濟也，久立於綴，以待諸侯之至也。 The Master said, 'Sit down, and I will tell you. Music is a representation of accomplished facts. The pantomimes stand with their shields, each erect and firm as a hill, representing the attitude of king Wu. The violent movements of the arms and fierce stamping represent the enthusiasm of Tai-gong. The kneeling of all at the conclusion of the performance represents the government (of peace, instituted) by (the dukes of) Zhou and Shao. Moreover, the pantomimes in the first movement proceed towards the north (to imitate the marching of king Wu against Shang); in the second, they show the extinction of Shang; in the third, they show the return march to the south; in the fourth, they show the laying out of the Southern states; in the fifth, they show how (the dukes of) Zhou and Shao were severally put in charge of the states on the left and right; in the sixth, they again unite at the point of starting to offer their homage to the son of Heaven. Two men, one on each side of the performers, excite them with bells, and four times they stop and strike and thrust, showing the great awe with which (king Wu) inspired the Middle states. Their advancing with these men on each side shows his eagerness to complete his helpful undertaking. The performers standing long together show how he waited for the arrival of the princes.
且女獨未聞牧野之語乎？武王克殷反商。未及下車而封黃帝之後於薊，封帝堯之後於祝，封帝舜之後於陳。下車而封夏后氏之後於杞，投殷之後於宋。封王子比干之墓，釋箕子之囚，使之行商容而復其位。庶民弛政，庶士倍祿。濟河而西，馬散之華山之陽，而弗復乘；牛散之桃林之野，而弗復服。車甲釁而藏之府庫，而弗復用。倒載干戈，包之以虎皮；將帥之士，使為諸侯；名之曰建櫜。然後知武王之不復用兵也。散軍而郊射，左射貍首，右射騶虞，而貫革之射息也。裨冕搢笏，而虎賁之士說劍也。祀乎明堂而民知孝。朝覲然後諸侯知所以臣，耕藉然後諸侯知所以敬。五者，天下之大教也。 'And have you alone not heard the accounts of Mu-ye? King Wu, after the victory over Yin, proceeded to (the capital of) Shang; and before he descended from his chariot he invested the descendants of Huang Di with Ji; those of the Di Yao with Zhu; and those of the Di Shun with Chen. When he had descended from it, he invested the descendant of the sovereign of Xia with Qi; appointed the descendants of Yin to Song; raised a mound over the grave of the king's son, Bi-gan; released the count of Ji from his imprisonment, and employed him to restore to their places the officers who were acquainted with the ceremonial usages of Shang. The common people were relieved from (the pressure) of the (bad) government which they had endured, and the emoluments of the multitude of (smaller) officers were doubled. (The king then) crossed the He, and proceeded to the West. His horses were set free on the south of mount Hua, not to be yoked again. His oxen were dispersed in the wild of the Peach forest, not to be put to the carriages again. His chariots and coats of mail were smeared with blood, and despatched to his arsenals, not to be used again. The shields and spears were turned upside down and conveyed away, wrapped in tiger skins, which were styled "the appointed cases." The leaders and commanders were then constituted feudal lords; and it was known throughout the kingdom that king Wu would have recourse to weapons of war no more. The army having been disbanded (the king commanded) a practice of archery at the colleges in the suburbs. At the college on the left (or east) they shot to the music of the Li-shou; at that on the right (or west) they shot to the music of the Zou-yu; and (from this time) the archery which consisted in going through (so many) buffcoats ceased. They wore (only) their civil robes and caps, with their ivory tokens of rank stuck in their girdles; and the officers of the guard put off their swords. (The king) offered sacrifice in the Hall of Distinction, and the people learned to be filial. He gave audiences at court, and the feudal lords knew how they ought to demean themselves. He ploughed in the field set apart for that purpose, and the lords learned what should be the object of reverence to them (in their states), These five things constituted great lessons for the whole kingdom.'
食三老五更於大學，天子袒而割牲，執醬而饋，執爵而酳，冕而總干，所以教諸侯之弟也。若此則周道四達，禮樂交通。則夫《武》之遲久，不亦宜乎！」 In feasting the three (classes of the) old and the five (classes of the) experienced in the Great college, he himself (the son of Heaven) had his breast bared and cut up the animals. He (also) presented to them the condiments and the cups. He wore the royal cap, and stood with a shield before him. In this way he taught the lords their brotherly duties. In this manner the ways of Zhou penetrated everywhere, and the interaction of ceremonies and music was established - is it not right that in the performance of the Wu there should be that gradual and long-continuing action?'