Chinese Notes

Back to collection

Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》

《項羽本紀》 Annals of Xiang Yu

項羽本紀》 Annals of Xiang Yu

二十

:「足以而已不足萬人。」於是大喜不肯司馬故事殺人士大夫中有為主賓客子弟以是秦始皇會稽浙江:「可取。」:「妄言!」以此中子

秦二世元年七月九月會稽:「江西為人使。」:「。」:「使。」:「。」須臾:「可行!」於是持守大驚擾亂所知所為大事使精兵八千部署校尉司馬不得:「使公主不能以此任用。」於是會稽

廣陵於是廣陵未能:「西。」八千西使使西稱為長者少年相聚適用不能萬人少年便:「自我未嘗不如有所。」:「有名大事不可。」於是將軍萬人下邳

彭城:「不利所在無道。」一日西使使項羽堅守此時

居家好奇:「陳勝無罪至今陳勝自立之後。」於是為人牧羊以為

司馬東阿東阿齊王東阿使使西:「。」:「不忍。」不肯使項羽西陽東收入項羽西

東阿西,()[項羽:「戰勝日益。」使使使者:「?」:「。」:「徐行。」項羽堅守不能項羽:「士卒。」彭城項羽彭城西

以為不足此時鉅鹿鉅鹿甬道萬人鉅鹿所謂河北

彭城項羽令尹

使者:「可謂。」以為將軍項羽冠軍安陽四十項羽:「鉅鹿。」:「不然不可戰勝不勝西不如不如不如。」下令:「不可使者。」飲酒士卒項羽:「不行士卒飲酒』。勢必不安境內專屬將軍國家在此一舉士卒。」項羽晨朝將軍:「。」:「將軍將軍。」將軍使義子使王因使項羽將軍將軍項羽

項羽冠軍名聞諸侯將軍鉅鹿項羽士卒於是甬道諸侯諸侯鉅鹿戰士呼聲諸侯人人於是項羽召見諸侯仰視項羽諸侯將軍諸侯

項羽二世使使咸陽司馬趙高不見不信故道趙高使不及:「趙高不能不免將軍。」:「不可蒙恬千里不能將軍十萬諸侯趙高二世將軍使將軍將軍將軍不能亡國獨立豈不將軍何不諸侯南面妻子?」狐疑使使項羽未成項羽使將軍日夜項羽

使人見項羽項羽:「。」:「。」項羽項羽流涕趙高項羽使將軍

諸侯異時使諸侯諸侯使:「將軍諸侯不能諸侯父母妻子。」諸侯項羽項羽將軍:「不服關中不如都尉。」於是二十萬人

函谷關不得咸陽項羽使項羽至于西項羽相見司馬使項羽:「關中使子嬰珍寶。」項羽:「士卒!」項羽四十十萬項羽:「山東財物婦女令人天子。」
Annals of Xiang Yu:
[Xiang Yu's troops] came to Hangu Pass in former Qin territory. The pass was guarded by (Liu Bang's) soldiers so [Xiang Yu] could not get through. Apart from this, it was said that Pei Gong (namely Liu Bang) had already occupied Xian Yang city. Xiang Yu hence got fiercely angry, so he ordered Lord Dang Yang to attack the pass. Then he got through the pass and marched to Xixi. Pei Gong's troops were stationed in Bashang; he did not have the chance to meet Xiang Yu. A military officer of Pei Gong, Cao Wushang, secretly sent a messenger to Xiang Yu, saying: "Pei Gong intends to be king of Guanzhong, with Zi Ying as prime minister, and possess all the treasures of Qin." Xiang Yu broke out in a rage, and said: "Prepare my soldiers tomorrow morning. I will destroy Pei Gong's army!" At that time, Xiang Yu had 400,000 men stationed in Hongmen, Pei Gong had 100,000 men in Bashang. Fan Zeng said to Xiang Yu: "When Pei Gong was in Shandong, he was very greedy for treasures and beauties. But today in Guanzhong, treasures are untouched, women are intact. This reveals his tremendous ambition. I had his Qi observed, and it is like dragon and tiger, in five colors - this is the Qi of the Son of Heaven. Strike him at once and do not miss!"

項羽:「。」:「不可。」大驚:「?」:「大王為此?」:「諸侯』。。」:「大王士卒足以?」默然:「不如?」:「。」:「?」:「殺人。」少長?」:「。」。」婚姻:「有所將軍所以出入非常日夜將軍。」:「不可自來。」:「。」於是:「關中不如。」
Annals of Xiang Yu:
Chu's Chief Minister of the Left Xiang Bo, Xiang Yu's uncle, was a friend of Zhang Liang, Marquis of Liu. Zhang Liang worked for Pei Gong at the time. Xiang Bo hence rode to Pei Gong's camp under the cover of the night, met Zhang Liang privately, told him about the assault and asked him to escape, saying: "You will die if you stay." Liang said: "I was appointed as Pei Gong's servant by the king of Han. Now that Pei Gong is in danger, it is not justifiable for me to escape. I have to warn him."
So Liang came to Pei Gong and told him everything. Pei Gong was surprised and scared, he said: "What should I do?" Liang asked: "Who gave you the idea?" Pei Gong said: "Someone told me to guard the pass and keep off other lords in order to be king of the Qin territory. I took that advice." Liang asked: "Can your troops rival King Xiang?" Pei Gong remained silent for a while, and then said: "Of course we cannot, what should I do?" Liang said: "Please go and tell Xiang Bo that you dare not betray King Xiang." Pei Gong asked: "How do you know Xiang Bo?" Liang answered: "We were old friends in the Qin times, he was guilty to murder and I saved his life. So today he came to save mine in emergency." Pei Gong asked: "Who of you is elder?" Liang said: "He is elder than me." Pei Gong said: "Call him in for me. I will treat him as elder brother."
Zhang Liang went out and invited Xiang Bo. So Xiang Bo came in to see Pei Gong. Pei Gong honored him with a toast and promised him a marriage, saying: "After I came to Guanzhong, I dare not touch anything. I recorded officers and citizens [of the city], sealed the treasury, waiting for the general (Xiang Yu). I guarded the pass only to restrain bandits and for security. I have been expecting the general day and night, how could I betray him? Please tell the general that I dare not do such unvirtuous things!" Xiang Bo promised, he said to Pei Gong: "Tomorrow you have to apologize to King Xiang early." Pei Gong said: "Yes." So Xiang Bo rode back to the camp (of King Xiang) in the night, and told King Xiang what Pei Gong had said. Xiang Bo said: "If it were not for Pei Gong, how could you so easily come to Guanzhong? It is not a noble thing to kill a man of merit. We had better treat him well." King Xiang agreed.

:「將軍將軍河北河南將軍小人將軍。」:「司馬不然何以。」西數目默然:「君王為人不忍。」:「君王以為。」:「。」不得於是:「今日何如?」:「常在。」:「同命。」衛士衛士西:「?」:「。」:「。」拜謝:「。」一生:「?」:「殺人不能不勝天下咸陽』。咸陽有所封閉宮室大王出入非常如此未有大王。」未有:「。」須臾
Annals of Xiang Yu:
The second day, accompanied by one hundred cavalrymen, Pei Gong came to meet King Xiang in Hongmen. Pei Gong apologized: "The general and I fought side by side against Qin. The general fought on the northern side of the (Yellow) river, and I fought on the south. I did not expect that I could be the first to break into Guanzhong and defeat Qin, and finally meet the general here. There must be a petty man trying to casts a bone between the general and me." King Xiang said: "This is all because of your officer Cao Wushang, otherwise I would not have done this."
King Xiang invited Pei Gong to a feast on that day. King Xiang and Xiang Bo sat facing the east. Yafu sat facing the south. Yafu was namely Fan Zeng. Pei Gong sat facing the north. Zhang Liang sat beside (Pei Gong) facing the west. Fan Zeng glanced several times at King Xiang, holding the jade on his girdle to hint (that it was time to take action). King Xiang remained silence and did not react. Fan Zeng stood up, came out and found Xiang Zhuang, said to him: "The Lord has not the heart (to kill). You should go in and toast, then ask to dance with a sword, and kill Pei Gong on his seat. Otherwise we all will be his prisoner one day."
So Zhuang went in and toasted, then he said: "The Lord drinks with Pei Gong, but there is no entertainment in the army, please allow me to dance with my sword." King Xiang said: "Approved." Xiang Zhuang drew his sword and danced. Xiang Bo also drew his sword and danced along, protecting Pei Gong obscurely with his body. Zhuang had no chance.
At this moment, Zhang Liang went out to the gate and found Fan Kuai. Fan Kuai asked: "How is the situation?" Liang said: "Very dangerous! Xiang Zhuang is dancing with sword, intending to kill Pei Gong!" Kuai said: "This is urgent! Let me in, I will save him with my life." Kuai broke through the gate with shield and sword. The guards tried to stop him. He crashed the guards to the ground with his shield. Then he rushed in (to the hall), stood facing the west with the mantle on his shoulders, his eyes opening so wide that the brow ridge was about to break up. King Xiang touched his sword and asked: "Who is this?" Zhang Liang said: "This is Pei Gong's stableman, Fan Kuai." King Xiang said: "A hero! Bestow wine on him!" Kuai was hence given wine. He (gave thanks) on his knees, then stood up and drank it all. King Xiang said: "Bestow pork on him!" He was then given raw pork. Kuai laid his shield on the ground, put the pork on it, cut the pork with his sword and ate. King Xiang asked: "Hero! Can you drink again?" Fan Kuai answered: "Even death will not scare me, how would wine! The emperor of Qin was as cruel as tiger and wolf, killing and torturing the people without an end. So the people revolted against him. King Huai (of Chu) made the agreement with all lords that the first who broke into Guanzhong should be king. Since Pei Gong defeated Qin and took over the city of Xian Yang, he kept nothing for himself. He sealed the palace, and waited for the King's arrival. He ordered his men to guard the pass only to prevent bandits and emergencies. You did not award such a man of merit, but instead trusted lies and tricks, intending to kill him. This is the same behavior as the dead Qin. I suggest your highness not do this." The King did not answer him, instead he only said: "Sit." Fan Kuai then took the seat beside Liang. After a while, Pei Gong got up and went out to the washroom, and asked Kuai to come with him.

使都尉:「?」:「不顧如今。」於是問曰:「大王?」:「:「。」相去四十脫身酈山:「從此不過二十。」:「不勝不能使大王足下將軍足下。」:「公安?」:「大王有意脫身。」:「不足天下。」
Annals of Xiang Yu:
As Pei Gong has come out, King Xiang ordered Lieutenant Chen Ping to call him back in. Pei Gong said (to Fan Kuai): "I came out without saying goodbye, what should I do now?" Fan Kuai said: "The most powerful never mind small matters; the most polite never care about small etiquette. Now they are knife and chopping block, we are fish in between, why need we say goodbye?" So [Pei Gong decided to] leave. He ordered Zhang Liang to stay and apologize for him. Liang asked: "Have you brought anything here?" [Pei Gong] said: "I have a pair of white jade for the Lord, and a pair of jade pecks for Yafu. They were angry so I dare not give them. Please deliver the gifts for me." Liang said: "Yes."
At that time, the camp of King Xiang was in Hongmen, and the camp of Pei Gong was in Bashang, 40 li from each other. Pei Gong discarded his chariot and rode alone, followed by Fan Kuai, Xiahou Ying, Qi Jiang and Ji Xin with swords and shields in their hands. They took a shortcut at the foot of the Mountain Li through Zhiyang. Pei Gong told Liang [before they left]: "It is only 20 li to our camp through this path. You go back in when you estimate that we have arrived." Pei Gong reached his camp after a while. Zhang Liang went back in (to the hall) and apologized: "Pei Gong has drunk too much, he cannot say his farewells. He ordered me to give this pair of white jade to the Lord, and this pair of jade pecks to the high general." King Xiang asked: "Where is Pei Gong?" Liang said: "He heard that the Lord intended to blame him for his fault, so he left and should have arrived in his camp." King Xiang accepted the jade and put it on the table. Yafu took the jade pecks, put them on the ground and broke them with his sword, saying (to Xiang Yu): "Ah! You idiot, I cannot help you! It shall be Pei Gong who will defeat you. We all will be imprisoned by him!" Upon arriving in his camp, Pei Gong executed Cao Wushang.

項羽西咸陽王子宮室三月婦女:「關中山河。」心懷:「富貴故鄉!」:「果然。」

使:「。」先王:「天下發難諸侯暴露天下。」:「。」天下天下講解諸侯陰謀:「。」:「關中。」漢王漢中三分關中漢王咸陽以西都尉司馬咸陽西魏平陽河南),河南雒陽故都司馬河內河內山王冠軍九江百越諸侯衡山江陵遼東齊王齊王齊王項羽項羽不肯十萬自立西霸王彭城

元年四月諸侯使:「地方千里上游。」使使長沙群臣背叛衡山使彭城以為遼東

項羽齊王齊王不肯齊王迎擊齊王自立齊王西將軍使齊王:「項羽天下不平群臣以為不可大王大王。」齊王反之王因

項羽漢王關中使:「漢王關中。」:「。」以此西九江使項羽不勝平原平原婦女北海人相於是萬人王因未能

漢王諸侯五十萬人精兵三萬四月彭城西彭城日中泗水萬人萬人漢王三匝於是西北逢迎漢王西使漢王漢王相見漢王漢王漢王如是:「不可?」於是太公相遇太公漢王

漢王士卒滎陽關中滎陽彭城滎陽南京不能滎陽西

彭城漢王滎陽齊王漢王彭城諸侯滎陽甬道甬道漢王滎陽以西

:「。」滎陽漢王使者使者驚愕:「以為使者使者。」使者使者:「天下君王。」彭城

漢王:「可以。」於是漢王女子滎陽東門二千:「中食漢王。」萬歲漢王西門:「漢王?」:「漢王。」

漢王使御史大夫滎陽:「。」滎陽:「將軍三萬。」:「若非。」

漢王滎陽九江漢王北門漢王西使不得西

東阿將軍漢王淮陰河南漢王河內使積聚漢王東海西

此時糧食太公漢王:「太公。」漢王:「項羽北面兄弟』,。」:「天下未可天下不顧無益。」

軍旅漢王:「天下漢王挑戰雌雄天下父子。」漢王:「不能。」挑戰挑戰射殺挑戰漢王使漢王大驚於是漢王漢王漢王漢王漢王

淮陰河北使淮陰自立齊王使淮陰淮陰司馬:「挑戰而已十五將軍。」

男子十五舍人十三:「大王大王百姓歸心從此。」

使司馬士卒司馬司馬是以信任滎陽

太公漢王使天下鴻溝以西鴻溝漢王父母妻子萬歲漢王國君:「天下辯士國君。」

西:「天下諸侯不如所謂。」漢王漢王淮陰建成不會漢王自守:「諸侯?」:「未有君王天下不能未可君王以北使各自。」漢王:「。」於是使者:「齊王以北。」使者:「。」并行垓下司馬九江垓下

垓下諸侯大驚:「!」人名駿馬於是悲歌:「不利!」左右仰視

於是八百五千迷失紿」。二十不得:「至今未嘗天下今日。」以為:「。」山東於是人馬與其所在都尉:「何如?」:「大王。」

於是:「地方千里眾數十萬大王。」:「子弟八千西面目不愧?」:「長者一日千里不忍。」步行數百司馬:「若非?」:「。」:「萬戶。」其後郎中司馬郎中其一中水

天下禮義為主及其最後漢王

漢王賜姓

太史公瞳子」,項羽瞳子不可尺寸之中諸侯分裂天下霸王」,以來未嘗關懷放逐自立霸王經營天下不覺」,豈不

Source: Chinese Text Project http://ctext.org/shiji Partial translation adapted from Herbert J. Allen's "Ssŭma Ch'ien's Historical Records" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1894).


Vocabulary Analysis


See the Help page for more information on the best use of the dictionary or if you have problems. Copyright Fo Guang Shan Nan Tien Institute 佛光山南天大學 2013-2017, www.nantien.edu.au. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. See About. Please send comments to alex@chinesenotes.com.

This page was last updated on 2017-09-22.