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Book of Changes 《易經》

益 Yi

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Yi indicates that (in the state which it denotes) there will be advantage in every movement which shall be undertaken, that it will be advantageous (even) to cross the great stream.

上下中正
In Yi we see the upper (trigram) diminished, and the lower added to. The satisfaction of the people (in consequence of this) is without limit. What descends from above reaches to all below, so great and brilliant is the course (of its operation). That 'there will be advantage in every movement which shall be undertaken' appears from the central and correct (positions of the second and fifth lines), and the (general) blessing (the dispensing of which they imply). That 'it will be advantageous (even) to cross the great stream' appears from the action of wood (shown in the figure). Yi is made up of (the trigrams expressive of) movement and docility, (through which) there is daily advancement to an unlimited extent. We have (also) in it heaven dispensing and earth producing, leading to an increase without restriction of place. Everything in the method of this increase proceeds according to the requirements of the time.

君子見善
(The trigram representing) wind and that for thunder form Yi. The superior man, in accordance with this, when he sees what is good, moves towards it; and when he sees his errors, he turns from them.

初九利用大作
The first NINE, undivided, shows that it will be advantageous for its subject in his position to make a great movement. If it be greatly fortunate, no blame will be imputed to him.


'If the movement be greatly fortunate, no blame will be imputed to him:' - though it is not for one in so low a position to have to do with great affairs.

永貞
The second SIX, divided, shows parties adding to the stores of its subject ten pairs of tortoise shells whose oracles cannot be opposed. Let him persevere in being firm and correct, and there will be good fortune. Let the king, (having the virtues thus distinguished), employ them in presenting his offerings to God, and there will be good fortune.

外來
'Parties add to his stores:' - they come from beyond (his immediate circle) to do so.

凶事中行公用
The third SIX, divided, shows increase given to its subject by means of what is evil, so that he shall (be led to good), and be without blame. Let him be sincere and pursue the path of the Mean, (so shall he secure the recognition of the ruler, like) an officer who announces himself to his prince by the symbol of his rank.

凶事固有
'Increase is given by means of what is evil and difficult:' - as he has in himself (the qualities called forth).

六四中行利用
The fourth SIX, divided, shows its subject pursuing the due course. His advice to his prince is followed. He can with advantage be relied on in such a movement as that of removing the capital.


'His advice to his prince is followed:' - his (only) object in it being the increase (of the general good).

我德
The fifth NINE, undivided, shows its subject with sincere heart seeking to benefit (all below). There need be no question about it; the result will be great good fortune. (All below) will with sincere heart acknowledge his goodness.

我德得志
'(The ruler) with sincere heart seeks to benefit (all below):' - there need be no question (about the result). '(All below) with sincere heart acknowledge (his goodness):' - he gets what he desires on a great scale.


In the sixth NINE, undivided, we see one to whose increase none will contribute, while many will seek to assail him. He observes no regular rule in the ordering of his heart. There will be evil.

偏辭外來
'To his increase none will contribute:' - this expresses but half the result. 'Many will seek to assail him:' - they will come from beyond (his immediate circle) to do so.


本作品在全世界都属于公有领域,因为作者逝世已经超过100,并且于192311日之前出版。
English translation: Legge 1882

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