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Book of Changes 《易經》

夬 Guai

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Guai requires (in him who would fulfil its meaning) the exhibition (of the culprit's guilt) in the royal court, and a sincere and earnest appeal (for sympathy and support), with a consciousness of the peril (involved in cutting off the criminal). He should (also) make announcement in his own city, and show that it will not be well to have recourse at once to arms. (In this way) there will be advantage in whatever he shall go forward to.

Guai is the symbol of displacing or removing. We see (in the figure) the strong (lines) displacing the weak. (We have in it the attributes of) strength and complacency. There is displacement, but harmony (continues). 'The exhibition (of the criminal's guilt) in the royal courtyard' is suggested by the (one) weak (line) mounted on the five strong lines. There 'is an earnest and sincere appeal (for sympathy and support), and a consciousness of the peril (involved in the undertaking):' - it is the realisation of this danger, which makes the method (of compassing the object) brilliant. 'He should make an announcement in his own city, and show that it will not be well to have recourse at once to arms:' - (if he have recourse to arms), what he prefers will (soon) be exhausted. 'There will be advantage in whatever he shall go forward to:' - when the growth of the strong (lines) has been completed, there will be an end (of the displacement).

(The trigram representing) heaven and that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it form Guai. The superior man, in accordance with this, bestows emolument on those below him, and dislikes allowing his gifts to accumulate (undispensed).

The first NINE, undivided, shows its subject in (the pride of) strength advancing with his toes. He goes forward, but will not succeed. There will be ground for blame.

'Without (being able to) succeed, he goes forward:' - this is an error.

The second NINE, undivided, shows its subject full of apprehension and appealing (for sympathy and help). Late at night hostile measures may be (taken against him), but he need not be anxious about them.

'Though hostile measures be taken against him, he need not be anxious:' - he pursues the course of the due mean.

The third NINE, undivided, shows its subject (about to advance) with strong (and determined) looks. There will be evil. (But) the superior man, bent on cutting off (the criminal), will walk alone and encounter the rain, (till he be hated by his proper associates) as if he were contaminated (by the others). (In the end) there will be no blame against him.

'The superior man looks bent on cutting off the culprit:' - there will in the end be no error.

The fourth NINE, undivided, shows one from whose buttocks the skin has been stripped, and who walks slowly and with difficulty. (If he could act) like. a sheep led (after its companions), occasion for repentance would disappear. But though he hear these words, he will not believe them.

'He walks slowly and with difficulty:' - he is not in the place appropriate to him. 'He hears these words, but does not believe them:' - he hears, but does not understand.

The fifth NINE, undivided, shows (the small men like) a bed of purslain, which ought to be uprooted with the utmost determination. (The subject of the line having such determination), his action, in harmony with his central position, will lead to no error or blame.

'If his action be in harmony with his central position, there will be no error:' - but his standing in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed.

The sixth SIX, divided, shows its subject without any (helpers) on whom to call. His end will be evil.

'There is the misery of having none on whom to call:' - the end will be that he cannot continue any longer.

English translation: Legge 1882

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