公儀仲子之喪，檀弓免焉。仲子舍其孫而立其子，檀弓曰：「何居？我未之前聞也。」趨而就子服伯子於門右，曰：「仲子舍其孫而立其子，何也？」伯子曰：「仲子亦猶行古之道也。昔者文王舍伯邑考而立武王，微子舍其孫腯而立衍也；夫仲子亦猶行古之道也。」子游問諸孔子，孔子曰：「否！立孫。」 At the mourning rites for Gong-yi Zhong-zi, Tan Gong (was there), wearing the mourning cincture for the head, Zhong-zi had passed over his grandson, and appointed one of his (younger) sons as his successor (and head of the family). Tan Gong said (to himself), 'How is this? I never heard of such a thing;' and he hurried to Zi-fu Bo-zi at the right of the door, and said, ' How is it that Zhong-zi passed over his grandson, and made a (younger) son his successor?' Bo-zi replied, 'Zhong-zi perhaps has done in this, like others, according to the way of antiquity. Anciently, king Wen passed over his eldest son Yi-kao, and appointed king Wu; and the count of Wei passed over his grandson Tu, and made Yan, his (own) younger brother, his successor. Zhong-zi perhaps did also in this according to the way of antiquity.' Zi-you asked Confucius (about the matter), and he said, 'Nay, (the rule is to) appoint the grandson.'
事親有隱而無犯，左右就養無方，服勤至死，致喪三年。事君有犯而無隱，左右就養有方，服勤至死，方喪三年。事師無犯無隱，左右就養無方，服勤至死，心喪三年。 In serving his father, (a son) should conceal (his faults), and not openly or strongly remonstrate with him about them; should in every possible way wait on and nourish him, without being tied to definite rules; should serve him laboriously till his death, and then complete the mourning for him for three' years. In serving his ruler, (a minister), should remonstrate with him openly and strongly (about his faults), and make no concealment (of them); should in every possible way wait on and nourish him, but according to definite rules; should serve him laboriously till his death, and should then wear mourning for him according to rule for three years. In serving his master, (a learner) should have nothing to do with openly reproving him or with concealing (his faults); should in every possible way wait upon and serve him, without being tied to definite rules; should serve him laboriously till his death, and mourn for him in heart for three years.
季武子成寢，杜氏之葬在西階之下，請合葬焉，許之。入宮而不敢哭。武子曰：「合葬非古也，自周公以來，未之有改也。吾許其大而不許其細，何居？」命之哭。 Ji Wu-zi had built a house, at the bottom of the western steps of which was the grave of the Du family. (The head of that) asked leave to bury (some member of his house) in it, and leave was granted to him to do so. (Accordingly) he entered the house (with the coffin), but did not dare to wail (in the usual fashion). Wu-zi said to him, 'To bury in the same grave was not the way of antiquity. It was begun by the duke of Zhou, and has not been changed since. I have granted you the great thing, and why should I not grant the less?' (With this) he ordered him to wail.
子上之母死而不喪。門人問諸子思曰：「昔者子之先君子喪出母乎？」曰：「然」。「子之不使白也喪之。何也？」子思曰：「昔者吾先君子無所失道；道隆則從而隆，道污則從而污。汲則安能？為汲也妻者，是為白也母；不為汲也妻者，是不為白也母。」故孔氏之不喪出母，自子思始也。 When Zi-shang's mother died, and he did not perform any mourning rites for her, the disciples of (his father) Zi-si asked him, saying, 'Did your predecessor, the superior man, observe mourning for his divorced mother?' 'Yes,' was the reply. (And the disciples went on), 'Why do you not make Bai also observe the mourning rites (for his mother)?' Zi-si said, 'My progenitor, a superior man, never failed in pursuing the right path. When a generous course was possible, he took it and behaved generously; and when it was proper to restrain his generosity, he restrained it. But how can I attain to that? While she was my wife, she was Bai's mother; but when she ceased to be my wife, she was no longer his mother.' It was in this way that the Kong family came not to observe mourning for a divorced mother; the practice began from Zi-si.
Confucius said, 'When (the mourner) bows to (the visitor), and then lays his forehead to the ground, this shows the predominance of courtesy. When he lays his forehead to the ground, and then bows (to his visitor), this shows the extreme degree of his sorrow. In the three years' mourning, I follow the extreme (demonstration).'
When Confucius had succeeded in burying (his mother) in the same grave (with his father) at Fang, he said, 'I have heard that the ancients made graves (only), and raised no mound over them. But I am a man, who will be (travelling) east, west, south, and north. I cannot do without something by which I can remember (the place).' On this, he (resolved to) raise a mound (over the grave) four feet high. 孔子先反，門人後，雨甚；至，孔子問焉曰：「爾來何遲也？」曰：「防墓崩。」孔子不應。三，孔子泫然流涕曰：「吾聞之：古不修墓。」 He then first returned, leaving the disciples behind. A great rain came on; and when they rejoined him, he asked them what had made them so late. 'The earth slipped,' they said, 'from the grave at Fang.' They told him this thrice without his giving them any answer. He then wept freely, and said, 'I have heard that the ancients did not need to repair their graves.'
孔子哭子路於中庭。有人吊者，而夫子拜之。既哭，進使者而問故。使者曰：「醢之矣。」遂命覆醢。 Confucius was wailing for Zi-lu in his courtyard. When any came to condole with him, he bowed to them. When the wailing was over, he made the messenger come in, and asked him all about (Zi-lu's death). 'They have made him into pickle,' said the messenger; and forthwith Confucius ordered the pickle (in the house) to be thrown away.
曾子曰：「朋友之墓，有宿草而不哭焉。」 Zeng-zi said, 'When the grass is old on the grave of a friend, we no (longer) wall for him.'
子思曰：「喪三日而殯，凡附於身者，必誠必信，勿之有悔焉耳矣。三月而葬，凡附於棺者，必誠必信，勿之有悔焉耳矣。喪三年以為極，亡則弗之忘矣。故君子有終身之憂，而無一朝之患。故忌日不樂。」 Zi-si said, 'On the third day of mourning, when the body is put into the coffin, (a son) should exercise sincerity and good faith in regard to everything that is placed with it, so that there shall be no occasion for repentance. In the third month when the body is interred, he should do the same in regard to everything that is placed with the coffin in the grave, and for the same reason. Three years are considered as the extreme limit of mourning; but though (his parents) are out of sight, a son does not forget them. Hence a superior man will have a lifelong grief, but not one morning's trouble (from without); and thus on the anniversary of a parent's death, he does not listen to music.'
孔子少孤，不知其墓。殯於五父之衢。人之見之者，皆以為葬也。其慎也，蓋殯也。問於郰曼父之母，然後得合葬於防。 Confucius, being quite young when he was left fatherless, did not know (his father's) grave. (Afterwards) he had (his mother's) body coffined in the street of Wu-fu. Those who saw it all thought that it was to be interred there, so carefully was (everything done), but it was (only) the coffining. By inquiring of the mother of Man-fu of Zou, he succeeded in burying it in the same grave (with his father) at Fang.
鄰有喪，舂不相；里有殯，不巷歌。喪冠不緌。 When there are mourning rites in the neighbourhood, one should not accompany his pestle with his voice. When there is a body shrouded and coffined in his village, one should not sing in the lanes. For a mourning cap the ends of the ties should not hang down.
有虞氏瓦棺，夏后氏堲周，殷人棺槨，周人墻置翣。周人以殷人之棺槨葬長殤，以夏后氏之堲周葬中殤、下殤，以有虞氏之瓦棺葬無服之殤。 (In the time of Shun) of Yu they used earthenware coffins; under the sovereigns of Xia, they surrounded these with an enclosure of bricks. The people of Yin used wooden coffins, the outer and inner. They of Zhou added the surrounding curtains and the feathery ornaments. The people of Zhou buried those who died between 16 and 19 in the coffins of Yin; those who died between 12 and 15 or between 8 and 11 in the brick enclosures of Xia; and those who died (still younger), for whom no mourning is worn, in the earthenware enclosures of the time of the lord of Yu.
夏后氏尚黑；大事斂用昏，戎事乘驪，牲用玄。殷人尚白；大事斂用日中，戎事乘翰，牲用白。周人尚赤；大事斂用日出，戎事乘騵，牲用騂。 Under the sovereigns of Xia they preferred what was black. On great occasions (of mourning), for preparing the body and putting it into the coffin, they used the dusk; for the business of war, they used black horses in their chariots; and the victims which they used were black. Under the Yin dynasty they preferred what was white. On occasions of mourning, for coffining the body, they used the midday; for the business of war they used white horses; and their victims were white. Under the Zhou dynasty they preferred what was red. On occasions of mourning, they coffined the body at sunrise; for the business of war they used red horses, with black manes and tails; and their victims were red.
穆公之母卒，使人問於曾子曰：「如之何？」對曰：「申也聞諸申之父曰：哭泣之哀、齊斬之情、饘粥之食，自天子達。布幕，衛也；縿幕，魯也。」 When the mother of duke Mu of Lu died, he sent to ask Zeng-zi what (ceremonies) he should observe. Zeng-zi said, 'I have heard from my father that the sorrow declared in the weeping and wailing, the feelings expressed in the robe of sackcloth with even or with frayed edges, and the food of rice made thick or in congee, extend from the son of Heaven to all. But the tent-like covering (for the coffin) is of (linen) cloth in Wei, and of silk in Lu.'
晉獻公將殺其世子申生，公子重耳謂之曰：「子蓋言子之志於公乎？」世子曰：「不可，君安驪姬，是我傷公之心也。」曰：「然則蓋行乎？」世子曰：「不可，君謂我欲弒君也，天下豈有無父之國哉！吾何行如之？」使人辭於狐突曰：「申生有罪，不念伯氏之言也，以至于死，申生不敢愛其死；雖然，吾君老矣，子少，國家多難，伯氏不出而圖吾君，伯氏茍出而圖吾君，申生受賜而死。」再拜稽首，乃卒。是以為「恭世子」也。 Duke Xian of Jin, intending to put to death his heir-son Shen-sheng, another son, Chong-er, said to the latter, 'Why should you not tell what is in your mind to the duke?' The heir-son said, 'I cannot do so. The ruler is happy with the lady Ji of Li. I should (only) wound his heart.' 'Then,' continued the other, 'Why not go away?' The heir son replied, 'I cannot do so. The ruler says that I wish to murder him. Is there any state where the (sacredness) of a father is not recognised? Where should I go to obviate this charge?' (At the same time) he sent a man to take leave (for him) of Hu Tu, with the message, 'I was wrong in not thinking (more) of your words, my old friend, and that neglect is occasioning my death. Though I do not presume to grudge dying, yet our ruler is old, and his (favourite) son is (quite) young. Many difficulties are threatening the state, and you, old Sir, do not come forth (from your retirement), and consult for (the good of) our ruler. If you will come forth and do this, I will die (with the feeling that I) have received a (great) favour from you.' He (then) bowed twice, laying his head to the ground, after which he died (by his own hand). On this account he became (known in history as)'the Reverential Heir-son'.'
魯人有朝祥而莫歌者，子路笑之。夫子曰：「由，爾責於人，終無已夫？三年之喪，亦已久矣夫。」子路出，夫子曰：「又多乎哉！逾月則其善也。」 There was a man of Lu, who, after performing in the morning the ceremony which introduced the 25th month of his mourning, began to sing in the evening. Zi-lu laughed at him, (but) the Master said, 'You, will you never have done with your finding fault with people? The mourning for three years is indeed long.' When Zi-lu went out, the Master said, 'Would he still have had to wait long? In another month (he might have sung, and) it would have been well.'
魯莊公及宋人戰于乘丘。縣賁父御，卜國為右。馬驚，敗績，公隊。佐車授綏。公曰：「末之卜也。」縣賁父曰：「他日不敗績，而今敗績，是無勇也。」遂死之。圉人浴馬，有流矢在白肉。公曰：「非其罪也。」遂誄之。士之有誄，自此始也。 Duke Zhuang of Lu fought a battle with the men of Song at Sheng-qiu. Xian Ben-fu was driving, and Bu Guo was spearman on the right. The horses got frightened, and the carriage was broken, so that the duke fell down. They handed the strap of a relief chariot (that drove up) to him, when he said, 'I did not consult the tortoise-shell (about the movement).' Xiun Ben-fu said, 'On no other occasion did such a disaster occur; that it has occurred to-day is owing to my want of courage. Forthwith he died (in the fight). When the groom was bathing the horses, a random arrow was found (in one of them), sticking in the flesh under the flank; and (on learning this), the duke said, 'It was not his fault; and he conferred on him an honorary name. The practice of giving such names to (ordinary) officers began from this.
曾子寢疾，病。樂正子春坐於床下，曾元、曾申坐於足，童子隅坐而執燭。童子曰：「華而睆，大夫之簀與？」子春曰：「止！」曾子聞之，瞿然曰：「呼！」曰：「華而睆，大夫之簀與？」曾子曰：「然，斯季孫之賜也，我未之能易也。元，起易簀。」曾元曰：「夫子之病帮矣，不可以變，幸而至於旦，請敬易之。」曾子曰：「爾之愛我也不如彼。君子之愛人也以德，細人之愛人也以姑息。吾何求哉？吾得正而斃焉斯已矣。」舉扶而易之。反席未安而沒。 Zeng-zi was lying in his chamber very ill. Yue-zheng Zi-chun was sitting by the side of the couch; Zeng Yuan and Zeng Shen were sitting at (their father's) feet; and there was a lad sitting in a corner holding a torch, who said, 'How beautifully coloured and bright! Is it not the mat of a Great officer?' Zi-chun (tried to) stop him, but Zeng-zi had heard him, and in a tone of alarm called him, when he repeated what he had said. 'Yes,' said Zeng-zi, 'it was the gift of Ji-sun, and I have not been able to change it. Get up, Yuan, and change the mat.' Zang Yuan said, 'Your illness is extreme. It cannot now be changed. If you happily survive till the morning, I will ask your leave and reverently change it! Zeng-zi said, 'Your love of me is not equal to his. A superior man loves another on grounds of virtue; a little man's love of another is seen in his indulgence of him. What do I seek for? I want for nothing but to die in the correct way.' They then raised him up, and changed the mat. When he was replaced on the new one, before he could compose himself, he expired.
始死，充充如有窮；既殯，瞿瞿如有求而弗得；既葬，皇皇如有望而弗至。練而慨然，祥而廓然。 When (a father) has just died, (the son) should appear quite overcome, and as if he were at his wits' end; when the corpse has been put into the coffin, he should cast quick and sorrowful glances around, as if he were seeking for something and could not find it; when the interment has taken place, he should look alarmed and. restless, as if he were looking for some one who does not arrive; at the end of the first year's mourning, he should look sad and disappointed; and at the end of the second year's, he should have a vague and unreliant look.
邾婁復之以矢，蓋自戰於升陘始也。魯婦人之髽而吊也，自敗於臺鮐始也。 The practice in Zhu-lou of calling the (spirits of the dead) back with arrows took its rise from the battle of Sheng-xing. That in Lu of the women making their visits of condolence (simply) with a band of sackcloth round their hair took its rise from the defeat at Yi-tai.
南宮絳之妻之姑之喪，夫子誨之髽曰：「爾毋從從爾，爾毋扈扈爾。蓋榛以為笄，長尺，而總八寸。」 At the mourning for her mother-in-law, the Master instructed (his niece), the wife of Nan-gong Jiang, about the way in which she should tie up her hair with sackcloth, saying, 'Do not make it very high, nor very broad. Have the hair-pin of hazel-wood, and the hair-knots (hanging down) eight inches.'
孟獻子禫，縣而不樂，比御而不入。夫子曰：「獻子加於人一等矣！」 Meng Xian-zi, after the service which ended the mourning rites, had his instruments of music hung on their stands,. but did not use them; and when he might have approached the inmates of his harem, he did not enter it. The Master said, 'Xian-zi is a degree above other men.'
孔子既祥，五日彈琴而不成聲，十日而成笙歌。 Confucius, after the service at the close of the one year's mourning, in five days more (began to) handle his lute, but brought no perfect sounds from it; in ten days he played on the organ and sang to it.
有子蓋既祥而絲屨組纓。 You-zi, it appears, after the service of the same period of mourning, wore shoes of (white) silk, and had ribbons of (white) silk for his cap-strings.
死而不吊者三：畏、厭、溺。 There are three deaths on which no condolence should be offered: from cowardice; from being crushed (through heedlessness); and from drowning.
子路有姊之喪，可以除之矣，而弗除也，孔子曰：「何弗除也？」子路曰：「吾寡兄弟而弗忍也。」孔子曰：「先王制禮，行道之人皆弗忍也。」子路聞之，遂除之。 When Zi-lu might have ended his mourning for his eldest sister, he still did not do so. Confucius said to him, 'Why do you not leave off your mourning?' He replied, 'I have but few brothers, and I cannot bear to do so.' Confucius said, 'When the ancient kings framed their rules, (they might have said that) they could not bear (to cease mourning) even for (ordinary) men on the roads.' When Zi-lu heard this, he forthwith left off his mourning.
大公封於營丘，比及五世，皆反葬於周。君子曰：「樂樂其所自生，禮不忘其本。古之人有言曰：狐死正丘首。仁也。」 Tai-gong was invested with his state, (and had his capital) in Ying-qiu; but for five generations (his descendants, the marquises of Qi) were all taken back and buried in Zhou. A superior man has said, 'For music, we use that of him from whom we sprang; in ceremonies, we do not forget him to whom we trace our root.' The ancients had a saying, that a fox, when dying, adjusts its head in the direction of the mound (where it was whelped); manifesting thereby (how it shares in the feeling of) humanity.
伯魚之母死，期而猶哭。夫子聞之曰：「誰與哭者？」門人曰：「鯉也。」夫子曰：「嘻！其甚也。」伯魚聞之，遂除之。 When the mother of Bo-Yu died, he kept on wailing for her after the year. Confucius heard him, and said, 'Who is it that is thus wailing?' The disciples said, 'It is Li.' The Master said, 'Ah! (such a demonstration) is excessive.' When Bo-Yu heard it, he forthwith gave up wailing.
舜葬於蒼梧之野，蓋三妃未之從也。季武子曰：「周公蓋祔。」 Shun was buried in the wilderness of Cang-wu, and it would thus appear that the three ladies of his harem were not buried in the same grave with him. Ji Wu-zi said, 'Burying (husband and wife) in the same grave appears to have originated with the duke of Zhou.'
曾子之喪，浴於爨室。 At the mourning rites for Zeng-zi, his body was washed in the cook-room.
大功廢業。或曰：「大功，誦可也。」 During the mourning for nine months one should suspend his (musical) studies. Some one has said, 'It is permissible during that time to croon over the words (of the pieces).'
子張病，召申祥而語之曰：「君子曰終，小人曰死；吾今日其庶几乎！」 When Zi-zhang was ill, he called (his son), Shen-xiang, and addressed him, saying, 'We speak of the end of a superior man, and of the death of a small man. I am to-day, perhaps, drawing near to my end (as a superior man).'
曾子曰：「始死之奠，其餘閣也與？」 Zeng-zi said, 'May not what remains in the cupboard suffice to set down (as the offerings) by (the corpse of) one who has just died?'
曾子曰：「小功不為位也者，是委巷之禮也。子思之哭嫂也為位，婦人倡踴；申祥之哭言思也亦然。」 Zeng-zi said, 'Not to have places (for wailing) in cases of the five months' mourning is a rule which sprang from the ways in small lanes.' When Zi-si wailed for his sister-in-law, he made such places, and his wife took the lead in the stamping. When Shen-xiang wailed for Yan-si, he also did the same.
古者，冠縮縫，今也，衡縫；故喪冠之反吉，非古也。 Anciently, (all) caps were (made) with the seams going up and down them; now the (mourning cap) is made with the seams going round. Hence to have the mourning cap different from that worn on felicitous occasions is not the way of antiquity.
曾子謂子思曰：「汲！吾執親之喪也，水漿不入於口者七日。」子思曰：「先王之制禮也，過之者俯而就之，不至焉者，跂而及之。故君子之執親之喪也，水漿不入於口者三日，杖而後能起。」 Zeng-zi said to Zi-si, 'Ji, when I was engaged in the mourning for my parents, no water or other liquid entered my mouth for seven days.' Zi-si said, 'With regard to the rules of ceremony framed by the ancient kings, those who would go beyond them should stoop down to them, and those who do not reach them should stand on tip-toe to do so. Hence, when a superior man is engaged in mourning for his parents, no water or other liquid enters his mouth for three days, and with the aid of his staff he is still able to rise.'
曾子曰：「小功不稅，則是遠兄弟終無服也，而可乎？」 Zeng-zi said, 'If, in cases coming under the five months' mourning, none be worn when the death is not heard of till after the lapse of that time, then when brethren are far apart there would be no wearing of mourning for them at all; and would this be right?'
伯高之喪，孔氏之使者未至，冉子攝束帛、乘馬而將之。孔子曰：「異哉！徒使我不誠於伯高。」 On the mourning rites for Bo-gao, before the messenger from Confucius could arrive, Ran-zi had taken it on him, as his substitute, to present a parcel of silks and a team of four horses. Confucius said, 'Strange! He has only made me fail in showing my sincerity in the case of Bo-gao.'
伯高死於衛，赴於孔子，孔子曰：「吾惡乎哭諸？兄弟，吾哭諸廟；父之友，吾哭諸廟門之外；師，吾哭諸寢；朋友，吾哭諸寢門之外；所知，吾哭諸野。於野，則已疏；於寢，則已重。夫由賜也見我，吾哭諸賜氏。」遂命子貢為之主，曰：「為爾哭也來者，拜之；知伯高而來者，勿拜也。」 Bo-gao died in Wei, and news of the event was sent to Confucius. He said, 'Where shall I wail for him? For brethren, I wail in the ancestral temple; for a friend of my father, outside the gate of the temple; for a teacher, in my chamber; for a friend, outside the door of the chamber; for an acquaintance, in the open country, (some distance off). (To wail) in the open country would in this case be too slight (an expression of grief), and to do so in the bed-chamber would be too great a one. But it was by Ci that he was introduced to me. I will wail for him in Ci's.' Accordingly he ordered Zi-gong to act as presiding mourner on the occasion, saying to him, 'Bow to those who come because you have a wailing in your house, but do not bow to those who come (simply) because they knew Bo-gao.'
曾子曰：「喪有疾，食肉飲酒，必有草木之滋焉。以為姜桂之謂也。」 Zeng-zi said, 'When one during his mourning rites falls ill, and has to eat meat and drink spirits, there must be added the strengthening flavours from vegetables and trees;' meaning thereby ginger and cinnamon.
子夏喪其子而喪其明。曾子吊之曰：「吾聞之也：朋友喪明則哭之。」曾子哭，子夏亦哭，曰：「天乎！予之無罪也。」曾子怒曰：「商，女何無罪也？吾與女事夫子於洙泗之間，退而老於西河之上，使西河之民疑女於夫子，爾罪一也；喪爾親，使民未有聞焉，爾罪二也；喪爾子，喪爾明，爾罪三也。而曰女何無罪與！」子夏投其杖而拜曰：「吾過矣！吾過矣！吾離群而索居，亦已久矣。」 When Zi-xia was mourning for his son, he lost his eyesight. Zeng-zi went to condole with him, and said, 'I have heard that when a friend loses his eyesight, we should wail for him.' Thereupon he wailed, and Zi-xia also wailed, and said, 'O Heaven, and I have no guilt!' Zeng-zi was angry, and said, 'Shang, how can you say that you have no guilt? I and you served the Master between the Zhu and the Si'; and (after his death) you retired, and grew old in the neighbourhood of the Western He, where you made the people compare you with the Master. This was one offence. When you mourned for your parents, you did so in such a way that the people heard nothing of it. This was a second offence. When you mourned for your son, you did it in such a way that you have lost your eyesight. This is a third offence. And how do you say that you have no guilt?' Zi-xia threw down his staff, and bowed, saying, 'I was wrong, I was wrong. It is a long time since I left the herd, and lived apart here.'
夫晝居於內，問其疾可也；夜居於外，吊之可也。是故君子非有大故，不宿於外；非致齊也、非疾也，不晝夜居於內。 When a man stops during the daytime in his inner (chamber), it is allowable to come and ask about his illness. When he stops outside during the night, it is allowable to come and condole with him. Hence a superior man, except for some great cause, does not pass the night outside (his chamber); and unless he is carrying out a fast or is ill, he does not day and night stop inside.
高子皋之執親之喪也，泣血三年，未嘗見齒，君子以為難。 When Gao Zi-gao was engaged with the mourning for his parents, his tears flowed (silently) like blood for three years, and he never (laughed) so as to show his teeth. Superior men considered that he did a difficult thing.
衰，與其不當物也，寧無衰。齊衰不以邊坐，大功不以服勤。 It is better not to wear mourning at all than not to have it of the proper materials and fashion. When wearing the sackcloth with the edges even (for a mother), one should not sit unevenly or to one side, nor should he do any toilsome labour, (even) in the nine months' mourning.
孔子之衛，遇舊館人之喪，入而哭之哀。出，使子貢說驂而賻之。子貢曰：「於門人之喪，未有所說驂，說驂於舊館，無乃已重乎？」夫子曰：「予鄉者入而哭之，遇於一哀而出涕。予惡夫涕之無從也。小子行之。」 When Confucius went to Wei, he found the mourning rites going on for a man with whom he had formerly lodged. Entering the house, he wailed for him bitterly; and when he came out, he told Zi-gong to take out the outside horses of his carriage, and present them as his gift. Zi-gong said, 'At the mourning for any of your disciples, you have never taken out those horses (for such a purpose); is it not excessive to do so for a man with whom you (merely) lodged?' The Master said, 'I entered a little ago, and wailed for him; and I found (the mourner) so dissolved in grief that my tears flowed (with his). I should hate it, if those tears were not (properly) followed. Do it, my child.'
孔子在衛，有送葬者，而夫子觀之，曰：「善哉為喪乎！足以為法矣，小子識之。」子貢曰：「夫子何善爾也？」曰：「其往也如慕，其反也如疑。」子貢曰：「豈若速反而虞乎？」子曰：「小子識之，我未之能行也。」 When Confucius was in Wei, there was (a son) following his (father's) coffin to the grave. After Confucius had looked at him, he said, 'How admirably did he manage this mourning rite! He is fit to be a pattern. Remember it, my little children.' Zi-gong said, 'What did you, Master, see in him so admirable?' 'He went,' was the reply, 'as if he were full of eager affection. He came back (looking) as if he were in doubt.' 'Would it not have been better, if he had come back hastily, to present the offering of repose?' The Master said, 'Remember it, my children. I have not been able to attain to it.'
顏淵之喪，饋祥肉，孔子出受之，入，彈琴而後食之。 At the mourning rites for Yan Yuan, some of the flesh of the sacrifice at the end of (? two) years was sent to Confucius, who went out and received it, On re-entering he played on his lute, and afterwards ate it.
孔子與門人立，拱而尚右，二三子亦皆尚右。孔子曰：「二三子之嗜學也，我則有姊之喪故也。」二三子皆尚左。 Confucius was standing (once) with his disciples, having his hands joined across his breast, and the right hand uppermost. They also all placed their right hands uppermost. He said to them, 'You do so from your wish to imitate me, but I place my hands so, because I am mourning for an elder sister.' On this they all placed their left hands uppermost (according to the usual fashion).
孔子蚤作，負手曳杖，消搖於門，歌曰：「泰山其頹乎？梁木其壞乎？哲人其萎乎？」既歌而入，當戶而坐。子貢聞之曰：「泰山其頹，則吾將安仰？梁木其壞、哲人其萎，則吾將安放？夫子殆將病也。」遂趨而入。夫子曰：「賜！爾來何遲也？夏后氏殯於東階之上，則猶在阼也；殷人殯於兩楹之間，則與賓主夾之也；周人殯於西階之上，則猶賓之也。而丘也殷人也。予疇昔之夜，夢坐奠於兩楹之間。夫明王不興，而天下其孰能宗予？予殆將死也。」蓋寢疾七日而沒。 Confucius rose early (one day), and with his hands behind him, and trailing his staff, moved slowly about near the door, singing, "The great mountain must crumble; The strong beam must break; The wise man must wither away like a plant.' Having thus sung, he entered and sat down opposite the door. Zi-gong had heard him, and said, 'If the great mountain crumble, to what shall I look up? If the strong beam break, (on what shall I lean)? If the wise man wither like a plant, whom, shall I imitate? The Master, I am afraid, is going to be ill.' He then hastened into the house. The Master said, Ci, what makes you so late? Under the sovereigns of Xia, the body was dressed and coffined at the top of the steps on the east, so that it was where the deceased used to go up (as master of the house). The people of Yin performed the same ceremony between the two pillars, so that the steps for the host were on one side of the corpse, and those for the guest on the other. The people of Zhou perform it at the top of the western steps, treating the deceased as if he were a guest. I am a man (descended from the house) of Yin, and last night I dreamt that I was sitting with the offerings to the dead by my side between the two pillars. Intelligent kings do not arise; and what one under heaven s able to take me as his Master? I apprehend I am about to die.' With this he took to his bed, was ill for seven days, and died.
孔子之喪，門人疑所服。子貢曰：「昔者夫子之喪顏淵，若喪子而無服；喪子路亦然。請喪夫子，若喪父而無服。」 At the mourning rites for Confucius, the disciples were in perplexity as to what dress they should wear. Zi-gong said, 'Formerly, when the Master was mourning for Yan Yuan, he acted in other respects as if he were mourning for a son, but wore no mourning dress. He did the same in the case of Zi-lu. Let us mourn for the Master, as if we were mourning for a father, but wear no mourning dress.'
孔子之喪，公西赤為志焉：飾棺、墻，置翣設披，周也；設崇，殷也；綢練設旐，夏也。 At the mourning for Confucius, Gong-xi Chi made the ornaments of commemoration. As the adornments of the coffin, there were the wall-like curtains, the fan-like screens, and the cords at its sides, after the manner of Zhou. There were the flags with their toothed edges, after the manner of Yin; and there were the flag-staffs bound with white silk, and long streamers pendent from them, after the manner of Xia.
子張之喪，公明儀為志焉；褚幕丹質，蟻結于四隅，殷士也。 At the mourning for Zi-zhang, Gong-ming made the ornaments of commemoration. There was a tent-like pall, made of plain silk of a carnation colour, with clusters of ants at the four corners, (as if he had been) an officer of Yin.
子夏問於孔子曰：「居父母之仇如之何？」夫子曰：「寢苫枕干，不仕，弗與共天下也；遇諸市朝，不反兵而鬥。」曰：「請問居昆弟之仇如之何？」曰：「仕弗與共國；銜君命而使，雖遇之不鬥。」曰：「請問居從父昆弟之仇如之何？」曰：「不為魁，主人能，則執兵而陪其後。」 Zi-xia asked Confucius, saying, 'How should (a son) conduct himself with reference to the man who has killed his father or mother?' The Master said, 'He should sleep on straw, with his shield for a pillow; he should not take office; he must be determined not to live with the slayer under the same heaven. If he meet with him in the market-place or the court, he should not have to go back for his weapon, but (instantly) fight with him.' 'Allow me to ask,' said (the other), 'how one should do with reference to the man who has slain his brother?' 'He may take office,' was the reply, 'but not in the same state with the slayer; if he be sent on a mission by his ruler's orders, though he may then meet with the man, he should not fight with him.' 'And how should one do,' continued Zi-xia, 'in the case of a man who has slain one of his paternal cousins?' Confucius said, 'He should not take the lead (in the avenging). If he whom it chiefly concerns is able to do that, he should support him from behind, with his weapon in his hand.'
孔子之喪，二三子皆絰而出。群居則絰，出則否。 At the mourning rites for Confucius, his disciples all wore their head-bands of sackcloth, when they went out. For one of their own number, they wore them in the house (when condoling), but not when they went out.
易墓，非古也。 Keeping (the ground about) their graves clear of grass was not a practice of antiquity.
子路曰：「吾聞諸夫子：喪禮，與其哀不足而禮有餘也，不若禮不足而哀有餘也。祭禮，與其敬不足而禮有餘也，不若禮不足而敬有餘也。」 Zi-lu said, 'I heard the Master say that in the rites of mourning, exceeding grief with deficient rites is better than little demonstration of grief with superabounding rites; and that in those of sacrifice, exceeding reverence with deficient rites is better than an excess of rites with but little reverence.'
曾子吊於負夏，主人既祖，填池，推柩而反之，降婦人而後行禮。從者曰：「禮與？」曾子曰：「夫祖者且也；且，胡為其不可以反宿也？」從者又問諸子游曰：「禮與？」子游曰：「飯於牖下，小斂於戶內，大斂於阼，殯於客位，祖於庭，葬於墓，所以即遠也。故喪事有進而無退。」曾子聞之曰：「多矣乎，予出祖者。」 Zeng-zi having gone on a visit of condolence to Fu-Xia, the chief mourner had already presented the sacrifice of departure, and removed the offerings. He caused the bier, however, to be pushed back to its former place, and made the women come down (again), after which (the visitor) went through his ceremony. The disciples who accompanied Zeng-zi asked him if this proceeding were according to rule, and he said, 'The sacrifice at starting is an unimportant matter, And why might he not bring (the bier) back, and 'let it rest (for a while)?' The disciples further asked the same question of Zi-you, who said, 'The rice and precious shell are put into the mouth of the corpse under the window (of the western chamber); the slighter dressing is done inside the door, and the more complete one at (the top of) the eastern steps; the coffining takes place at the guests' place; the sacrifice at starting in the courtyard; and the interment at the grave. The proceedings go on in this way to what is more remote, and hence in the details of mourning there is a constant advance and no receding.' When Zeng-zi heard of this reply, he said, 'This is a much better account than I gave of the going forth to offer the sacrifice of departure.'
曾子襲裘而吊，子游裼裘而吊。曾子指子游而示人曰：「夫夫也，為習於禮者，如之何其裼裘而吊也？」主人既小斂、袒、括髮；子游趨而出，襲裘帶絰而入。曾子曰：「我過矣，我過矣，夫夫是也。」 Zeng-zi went an a visit of condolence, wearing his fur robe over the silk one, while Zi-you went, wearing the silk one over his fur. Zeng-zi, pointing to him, and calling the attention of others, said, 'That man has the reputation of being well versed in ceremonies, how is it that he comes to condole with his silk robe displayed over his fur one?' (By-and-by), when the chief mourner had finished the slighter dressing of the corpse, he bared his breast and tied up his hair with sackcloth, on which Zi-you hastened out, and (soon) came back, wearing his fur robe over the silk, and with a girdle of sackcloth. Zeng-zi on this said, 'I was wrong, I was wrong. That man was right.'
子夏既除喪而見，予之琴，和之不和，彈之而不成聲。作而曰：「哀未忘也。先王制禮，而弗敢過也。」子張既除喪而見，予之琴，和之而和，彈之而成聲，作而曰：「先王制禮不敢不至焉。」 When Zi-xia was introduced (to the Master) after he had put off the mourning (for his parents), a lute was given to him. He tried to tune it, but could hardly do so; he touched it, but brought no melody from it. He rose up and said, 'I have not yet forgotten my grief. The ancient kings framed the rules of ceremony, and I dare not go beyond them?' When a lute was given to Zi-zhang in the same circumstances, he tried to tune it, and easily did so; he touched it, and brought melody from it. He rose up and said, 'The ancient kings framed the rules of ceremony, and I do not dare not to come up to them.'
司寇惠子之喪，子游為之麻衰牡麻絰，文子辭曰：「子辱與彌牟之弟游，又辱為之服，敢辭。」子游曰：「禮也。」文子退反哭，子游趨而就諸臣之位，文子又辭曰：「子辱與彌牟之弟游，又辱為之服，又辱臨其喪，敢辭。」子游曰：「固以請。」文子退，扶適子南面而立曰：「子辱與彌牟之弟游，又辱為之服，又辱臨其喪，虎也敢不復位。」子游趨而就客位。 At the mourning rites for Hui-zi, who had been minister of Crime, Zi-you (went to condole), wearing for him a robe of sackcloth, and a headband made of the product of the male plant. Wen-zi (the brother of Hui-zi), wishing to decline the honour, said, 'You condescended to be the associate of my younger brother, and now further condescend to wear this mourning; I venture to decline the honour.' Zi-you said, 'It is in, rule;' on which Wen-zi returned and continued his wailing. Zi-you then hastened and took his place among the officers (of the family); but Wen-zi also declined this honour, and said, 'You condescended to be the associate of my younger brother, and now further condescend to wear for him this mourning, and to come and take part in the mourning rites I venture to decline the honour.' Zi-you said, 'I beg firmly to request you to allow me (to remain here).' Wen-zi then returned, and supporting the rightful son to take his position with his face to the south, said, 'You condescended to be the associate of my younger brother, and now you further condescend to wear this mourning for him, and to come and take part in the rites; dare Hu but return to his (proper) place?' Zi-you on this hastened to take his position among the guests'.
將軍文子之喪，既除喪，而後越人來吊，主人深衣練冠，待于廟，垂涕洟，子游觀之曰：「將軍文氏之子其庶几乎！亡於禮者之禮也，其動也中。」 At the mourning rites for the general Wen-zi, when the first year's mourning was at an end, there came a man from Yue on a visit of condolence. The chief mourner, wearing the long robe (assumed on the completion of the first year's mourning), and the cap worn before that, wailed for him in the ancestral temple, with the tears running from his eyes and the rheum from his nose. Zi-you saw it, and said, 'The son of the general Wen is not far from being (a master of ceremonies). In his observances at this time, for which there is no special rule, his proceeding is correct.'
幼名，冠字，五十以伯仲，死謚，周道也。 The giving of the name in childhood, of the designation at the capping, of the title of elder uncle or younger uncle at fifty, and of the honorary title after death, was the practice of the Zhou dynasty.
絰也者，實也。掘中溜而浴，毀灶以綴足；及葬，毀宗躐行，出于大門，殷道也。學者行之。 The wearing of the sackcloth head-bands and girdles, to express the real (feeling of the heart); the digging a hole in the middle of the apartment (over which) to wash (the corpse); taking down the (tiles of the) furnace, and placing them at the feet (of it); and at the interment pulling down (part of the wall on the west of the door of) the ancestral temple, so as to pass by the upper side (of the altar to the spirit) of the way, and issue by the great gate - these were the practices of the Yin dynasty, and the learners (in the school of Confucius) followed them.
子柳之母死，子碩請具。子柳曰：「何以哉？」子碩曰：「請粥庶弟之母。」子柳曰：「如之何其粥人之母以葬其母也？不可。」既葬，子碩欲以賻布之餘具祭器。子柳曰：「不可，吾聞之也：君子不家於喪。請班諸兄弟之貧者。」 When the mother of Zi-liu died, (his younger brother) Zi-shi asked for the means (to provide what was necessary for the mourning rites). Zi-liu said, 'How shall we get them?' 'Let us sell (the concubines), the mothers of our half-brothers,' said the other. 'How can we sell the mothers of other men to bury our mother?' was the reply; 'that cannot be done.' After the burial, Zi-shi wished to take what remained of the money and other things contributed towards their expenses, to provide sacrificial vessels; but Zi-liu said, 'Neither can that be done. I have heard that a superior man will not enrich his family by means of his mourning. Let us distribute it among the poor of our brethren.'
君子曰：「謀人之軍師，敗則死之；謀人之邦邑，危則亡之。」 A superior man said, 'He who has given counsel to another about his army should die with it when it is defeated. He who has given counsel about the country or its capital should perish with it when it comes into peril.'
公叔文子升於瑕丘，蘧伯玉從。文子曰：「樂哉斯丘也，死則我欲葬焉。」蘧伯玉曰：「吾子樂之，則瑗請前。」 Gong-shu Wen-zi ascended the mound of Xia, with, Qu Bo-Yu following him. Wen-zi said, 'How pleasant is this mound! I should like to be buried here when I die.' Qu Bo-Yu said, 'You may find pleasure in such a thought, but allow me (to go home) before (you say any more about it)
弁人有其母死而孺子泣者，孔子曰：「哀則哀矣，而難為繼也。夫禮，為可傳也，為可繼也。故哭踴有節。」 There was a man of Bian who wept like a child on the death of his mother. Confucius said, 'This is grief indeed, but it would be difficult to continue it. Now the rules of ceremony require to be handed down, and to be perpetuated. Hence the wailing and leaping are subject to fixed regulations.'
叔孫武叔之母死，既小斂，舉者出戶，出戶袒，且投其冠括髮。子游曰：「知禮。」 When the mother of Shu-sun Wu-shu died, and the slighter dressing had been completed, the bearers went out at the door (of the apartment) with the corpse. When he had himself gone out at the door, he bared his arms, throwing down also his cap, and binding his hair with sackcloth, Zi-you said (in derision), 'He knows the rules!'
扶君，卜人師扶右，射人師扶左；君薨以是舉。 (When a ruler was ill), the high chamberlain supported him on the right, and the assigner of positions at audiences did so on the left. When he died these two officers lifted (the corpse).
從母之夫，舅之妻，二夫人相為服，君子未之言也。或曰同爨緦。 There are the husband of a maternal cousin and the wife of a maternal uncle; that these two should wear mourning for each other has not been said by any superior man. Some one says, 'If they have eaten together from the same fireplace, the three months' mourning should be worn.'
喪事，欲其縱縱爾；吉事，欲其折折爾。故喪事雖遽，不陵節；吉事雖止，不怠。故騷騷爾則野，鼎鼎爾則小人。君子蓋猶猶爾。 It is desirable that affairs of mourning should be gone about with urgency, and festive affairs in a leisurely way. Hence, though affairs of mourning require urgency, they should not go beyond the prescribed rules; and though festive affairs may be delayed, they should not be transacted negligently. Hurry therefore (in the former) becomes rudeness, and too much ease (in the latter) shows a small man. The superior man will conduct himself in them as they severally require.
喪具，君子恥具，一日二日而可為也者，君子弗為也。喪服，兄弟之子猶子也，蓋引而進之也；嫂叔之無服也，蓋推而遠之也；姑姊妹之薄也，蓋有受我而厚之者也。食於有喪者之側，未嘗飽也。 A superior man is ashamed to prepare (beforehand) all that he may require in discharging his mourning rites. What can be made in one or two days, he does not prepare (beforehand). The mourning worn for the son of a brother should be the same as for one's own son: the object being to bring him still nearer to one's self. An elder brother's wife and his younger brother do not wear mourning for each other: the object being to maintain the distance between them. Slight mourning is worn for an aunt, and an elder or younger sister, (when they have been married); the reason being that there are those who received them from us, and will render to them the full measure of observance. When (the Master) was eating by the side of one who had mourning rites in hand, he never ate to the full.
曾子與客立於門側，其徒趨而出。曾子曰：「爾將何之？」曰：「吾父死，將出哭於巷。」曰：「反，哭於爾次。」曾子北面而吊焉。 Zeng-zi was standing with (another) visitor by the side of the door (of their house of entertainment), when a companion (of the other) came hurrying out. 'Where are you going?' said Zeng-zi; and the man replied, 'My father is dead, and I am going to wail for him in the lane.' 'Return to your apartment,' was the reply, 'and wail for him there.' (The man did so), and Zeng-zi made him a visit of condolence, standing with his face to the north.
孔子曰：「之死而致死之，不仁而不可為也；之死而致生之，不知而不可為也。是故，竹不成用，瓦不成味，木不成斫，琴瑟張而不平，竽笙備而不和，有鐘磬而無簨虡，其曰明器，神明之也。」 Confucius said, 'In dealing with the dead, if we treat them as if they were entirely dead, that would show a want of affection, and should not be done; or, if we treat them as if they were entirely alive, that would show a want of wisdom, and should not be done. On this account the vessels of bamboo (used in connexion with the burial of the dead) are not fit for actual use; those of earthenware cannot be used to wash in; those of wood are incapable of being carved; the lutes are strung, but not evenly; the pandean pipes are complete, but not in tune; the bells and musical stones are there, but they have no stands. They are called vessels to the eye of fancy; that is, (the dead) are thus treated as if they were spiritual intelligences.'
有子問於曾子曰：「問喪於夫子乎？」曰：「聞之矣：喪欲速貧，死欲速朽。」有子曰：「是非君子之言也。」曾子曰：「參也聞諸夫子也。」有子又曰：「是非君子之言也。」曾子曰：「參也與子游聞之。」有子曰：「然，然則夫子有為言之也。」 You-zi asked Zeng-zi if he had ever questioned the Master about (an officer's) losing his place. 'I heard from him,' was the reply, 'that the officer in such a case should wish to become poor quickly, (just as) we should wish to decay away quickly when we have died.' You-zi said, 'These are not the words of a superior man.' 'I heard them from the Master,' returned Zeng-zi. You-zi repeated that they were not the words of a superior man, and the other affirmed that both he and Zi-you had heard them. 'Yes, yes,' said You-zi, 'but the Master must have spoken them with a special reference.'
曾子以斯言告於子游。子游曰：「甚哉，有子之言似夫子也。昔者夫子居於宋，見桓司馬自為石槨，三年而不成。夫子曰：『若是其靡也，死不如速朽之愈也。』死之欲速朽，為桓司馬言之也。南宮敬叔反，必載寶而朝。夫子曰：『若是其貨也，喪不如速貧之愈也。』喪之欲速貧，為敬叔言之也。」 Zeng-zi reported You-zi's words to Zi-you, who said, 'How very like his words are to those of the Master! Formerly, when the Master was staying in Song, he saw that Huan, the minister of War, had been for three years having a stone coffin made for himself without its being finished, and said, "What extravagance! It would be better that when dead he should quickly decay away." It was with reference to Hwan, the minister of War, that he said, "We should wish to decay away quickly when we die." When Nan-gong Jing-shu returned (to the state), he made it a point to carry his treasures with him in his carriage when he went to court, on which the Master said, "Such an amount of property! It would have been better for him, when he lost his office, to make haste to become poor." It was with reference to Nan-gong Jing-shu that he said that we should work to become poor quickly, when we have lost office."'
曾子以子游之言告於有子，有子曰：「然，吾固曰：非夫子之言也。」曾子曰：「子何以知之？」有子曰：「夫子制於中都，四寸之棺，五寸之槨，以斯知不欲速朽也。昔者夫子失魯司寇，將之荊，蓋先之以子夏，又申之以冉有，以斯知不欲速貧也。」 Zeng-zi reported these words of Zi-you to You-zi, who said, 'Yes, I did say that these were not the words of the Master.' When the other asked him how he knew it, he said, 'The Master made an ordinance in Zhong-Du that the inner coffin should be four inches thick, and the outer five. By this I knew that he did not wish that the dead should decay away quickly. And formerly, when he had lost the office of minister of Crime in Lu, and was about to go to Jing, he first sent Zi-xia there, and afterwards Ran You. By this, I knew that he did not wish to become poor quickly.'
陳莊子死，赴於魯，魯人欲勿哭，繆公召縣子而問焉。縣子曰：「古之大夫，束修之問不出竟，雖欲哭之，安得而哭之？今之大夫，交政於中國，雖欲勿哭，焉得而弗哭？且且臣聞之，哭有二道：有愛而哭之，有畏而哭之。」公曰：「然，然則如之何而可？」縣子曰：「請哭諸異姓之廟。」於是與哭諸縣氏。 When Zhuang-zi of Chen died, announcement of the event was sent to Lu. They did not want to wail for him there, but duke Mu called Xian-zi, and consulted him. He said, 'In old times, no messages from Great officers, not even such as were accompanied by a bundle of pieces of dried meat, went out beyond the boundaries of their states. Though it had been wished to wail for them, how could it have been done? Nowadays the Great officers share in the measures of government throughout the middle states. Though it may be wished not to wail for one, how can it be avoided? I have heard, moreover, that there are two grounds for the wailing; one from love, and one from fear.' The duke said, 'Very well; but how is the thing to be managed in this case?' Xian-zi said, 'I would ask you to wail for him in the temple of (a family of) a different surname;' and hereon the duke and he wailed for Zhuang-zi in (the temple of) the Xian family.
仲憲言於曾子曰：「夏后氏用明器，示民無知也；殷人用祭器，示民有知也；周人兼用之，示民疑也。」曾子曰：「其不然乎！其不然乎！夫明器，鬼器也；祭器，人器也；夫古之人，胡為而死其親乎？」 Zhong Xian said to Zeng-zi, 'Under the sovereigns of the Xia dynasty, they used (at burials) the vessels which were such only to the eye of fancy, intimating to the people that (the dead) had no knowledge. Under the Yin they used the (ordinary) sacrificial vessels, intimating to the people that (the dead) had knowledge. Under the Zhou we use both, intimating to the people that the thing is doubtful.' Zeng-zi replied, 'It is not so! It is not so! What are vessels (only) to the eye of fancy are for the shades (of the departed); the vessels of sacrifice are those of men; how should those ancients have treated their parents as if they were dead?'
公叔木有同母異父之昆弟死，問於子游。子游曰：「其大功乎？」狄儀有同母異父之昆弟死，問於子夏，子夏曰：「我未之前聞也；魯人則為之齊衰。」狄儀行齊衰。今之齊衰，狄儀之問也。 An elder brother of Gong-shu Mu, by the same mother but a different father, having died, he asked Zi-you (whether he should go into mourning for him), and was answered, 'Perhaps you should do so for the period of nine months.' A brother, similarly related to Di Yi, having died, he consulted Zi-xia in the same way, and was answered, 'I have not heard anything about it before, but the people of Lu wear the one year's mourning in such a case.' Di Yi did so, and the present practice of wearing that mourning arose from his question'.
子思之母死於衛，柳若謂子思曰：「子，聖人之後也，四方於子乎觀禮，子蓋慎諸。」子思曰：「吾何慎哉？吾聞之：有其禮，無其財，君子弗行也；有其禮，有其財，無其時，君子弗行也。吾何慎哉！」 When Zi-si's mother died in Wei, Liu Ruo said to him, 'You, Sir, are the descendant of a sage. From all quarters they look to you for an example in ceremonies; let me advise you to be careful in the matter.' Zi-si said, 'Of what have I to be careful? I have heard that when there are certain ceremonies to be observed, and he has not the necessary means for them, a superior man does not observe them', and that neither does he do so, when there are the ceremonies, and he has the means, but the time is not suitable; of what have I to be careful?'
縣子瑣曰：「吾聞之：古者不降，上下各以其親。滕伯文為孟虎齊衰，其叔父也；為孟皮齊衰，其叔父也。」 Xian-zi Suo said, 'I have heard that the ancients made no diminution (in the degrees of mourning on any other ground); but mourned for every one above and below them according to his relationship. Thus Wen, the earl of Teng, wore the year's mourning for Meng-hu, who was his uncle, and the same for Meng Pi, whose uncle he was.'
後木曰：「喪，吾聞諸縣子曰：夫喪，不可不深長思也，買棺外內易，我死則亦然。」 Hou Mu said, 'I heard Xian-zi say about the rites of mourning, that (a son) should certainly think deeply and long about them all, and that (for instance) in buying the coffin he should see that, inside and outside, it be (equally) well completed. When I die, let it be so also with me.'
曾子曰：「尸未設飾，故帷堂，小斂而徹帷。」仲梁子曰：「夫婦方亂，故帷堂，小斂而徹帷。」 Zeng-zi said, 'Until the corpse has its ornaments put on it, they curtain off the hall; and after the slighter dressing the curtain is removed.' Gong-liang-zi said, 'Husband and wife are at first all in confusion, and therefore the hall is curtained off. After the slighter dressing, the curtain is removed.'
小斂之奠，子游曰：「於東方。」曾子曰：「於西方，斂斯席矣。」小斂之奠在西方，魯禮之末失也。 With regard to the offerings to the dead at the time of the slighter dressing, Zi-you said that they should be placed on the east (of the corpse). Zeng-zi said, 'They should be placed on the west, on the mat there at the time of the dressing.' The placing the offerings on the west at the time of the slighter dressing was an error of the later times of Lu.
縣子曰：「綌衰繐裳，非古也。」 Xuan-zi said, 'To have the mourning robe of coarse dolichos cloth, and the lower garment of fine linen with a wide texture, was not (the way of) antiquity.'
子蒲卒，哭者呼滅。子皋曰：「若是野哉。」哭者改之。 When Zi-pu died, the wailers called out his name Mie. Zi-gao said, 'So rude and uncultivated are they!' On this they changed their style.
杜橋之母之喪，宮中無相，以為沽也。 At the mourning rites for the mother of Du Qiao no one was employed in the house to assist (the son in the ceremonies), which was accounted a careless omission.
夫子曰：「始死，羔裘玄冠者，易之而已。」羔裘玄冠，夫子不以吊。 The Master said, 'As soon as a death occurs, (the members of the family) should change their lambskin furs and dark-coloured caps, though they may do nothing more.' The Master did not pay a visit of condolence in these articles of dress.
子游問喪具，夫子曰：「稱家之有亡。」子游曰：「有亡惡乎齊？」夫子曰：「有，毋過禮；茍亡矣，斂首足形，還葬，縣棺而封，人豈有非之者哉！」 Zi-you asked about the articles to be provided for the mourning rites, and the Master said, 'They should be according to the means of the family.' Zi-you urged, 'How can a family that has means and one that has not have things done in the same way?' The master replied, 'Where there are means, let there be no exceeding the prescribed rites. If there be a want of means, let the body be lightly covered from head to foot, and forthwith buried, the coffin being simply let down by means of ropes. Who in such a case will blame the procedure?'
司士賁告於子游曰：「請襲於床。」子游曰：「諾。」縣子聞之曰：「汰哉叔氏！專以禮許人。」 Ben, superintendent of officers' registries, informed Zi-you of his wish to dress his dead on the couch. 'You may,' said Zi-you. When Xian-zi heard of this, he said, 'How arrogant is the old gentleman! He takes it on himself to allow men in what is the proper rule.'
宋襄公葬其夫人，醯醢百甕。曾子曰：「既曰明器矣，而又實之。」 At the burial of his wife, duke Xiang of Song placed (in the grave) a hundred jars of vinegar and pickles. Zeng-zi said, 'They are called "vessels only to the eye of fancy," and yet he filled them!'
孟獻子之喪，司徒旅歸四布。夫子曰：「可也。」 After the mourning rites for Meng Xian-zi, the chief minister of his family made his subordinates return their money-offerings to all the donors. The Master said that such a thing was allowable.
讀賵，曾子曰：「非古也，是再告也。」 About the reading of the list of the material contributions (towards the service of a funeral), Zeng-zi said, 'It is not an ancient practice; it is a second announcement (to the departed)!'
成子高寢疾，慶遺入，請曰：「子之病帮矣，如至乎大病，則如之何？」子高曰：「吾聞之也：生有益於人，死不害於人。吾縱生無益於人，吾可以死害於人乎哉？我死，則擇不食之地而葬我焉。」 When Cheng-zi Gao was lying ill, Qing went in to see him, and asked his (parting) commands, saying, 'Your disease, Sir, is severe. If it should go on to be the great illness, what are we to do?' Zi-gao said, 'I have heard that in life we should be of use to others, and in death should do them no harm. Although I may have been of no use to others during my life, shall I do them any harm by my death? When I am dead, choose a piece of barren ground, and bury me there.'
子夏問諸夫子曰：「居君之母與妻之喪。」「居處、言語、飲食衎爾。」 Zi-xia asked the Master (how one should deport himself) during the mourning for the ruler's mother or wife, (and the reply was), 'In sitting and stopping with others, in his conversation, and when eating and drinking, he should appear to be at ease.
賓客至，無所館。夫子曰：「生於我乎館，死於我乎殯。」 When a stranger-visitor arrived, and had nowhere to lodge, the Master would say, 'While he is alive, let him lodge with me. Should he die, I will see to his coffining.'
國子高曰：「葬也者，藏也；藏也者，欲人之弗得見也。是故，衣足以飾身，棺周於衣，槨周於棺，土周於槨；反壤樹之哉。」 Guo-zi gao said, 'Burying means hiding away; and that hiding (of the body) is from a wish that men should not see it. Hence there are the clothes sufficient for an elegant covering; the coffin all round about the clothes; the shell all round about the coffin; and the earth all round about the shell. And shall we farther raise a mound over the grave and plant it with trees?'
孔子之喪，有自燕來觀者，舍於子夏氏。子夏曰：「聖人之葬人與？人之葬聖人也，子何觀焉？昔者夫子言之曰：『吾見封之若堂者矣，見若坊者矣，見若覆夏屋者矣，見若斧者矣。』從若斧者焉。馬鬣封之謂也。今一日而三斬板，而已封，尚行夫子之志乎哉！」 At the mourning for Confucius, there came a man from Yan to see (what was done), and lodged at Zi-xia's. Zi-xia said to him, 'If it had been for the sage's conducting a burial, (there would have been something worthy to see); but what is there to see in our burying of the sage? Formerly the Master made some remarks to me, saying, "I have seen some mounds made like a raised hall; others like a dyke on a river's bank; others like the roof of a large house; and others in the shape of an axe-head." We have followed the axe-shape, making what is called the horse-mane mound. In one day we thrice shifted the frame-boards, and completed the mound. I hope we have carried out the wish of the Master.'
婦人不葛帶。 Women (in mourning) do not (change) the girdle made of dolichos fibre.
有薦新，如朔奠。 When new offerings (of grain or fruits) are presented (beside the body in the coffin), they should be (abundant), like the offerings on the first day of the moon.
既葬，各以其服除。 When the interment has taken place, everyone should make a change in his mourning dress.
池視重溜。 The gutters of the tent-like frame over the coffin should be like the double gutters of a house.
君即位而為椑，歲一漆之，藏焉。 When a ruler succeeds to his state, he makes his coffin, and thereafter varnishes it once a year, keeping it deposited away.
復、楔齒、綴足、飯、設飾、帷堂并作。 Calling the departed back; plugging the teeth open; keeping the feet straight; filling the mouth; dressing the corpse; and curtaining the hall: these things are set about together.
父兄命赴者。君復於小寢、大寢，小祖、大祖，庫門、四郊。 The uncles and elder cousins give their charges to those who are to communicate the death (to friends). The (soul of a deceased) ruler is called back in his smaller chambers, and the large chamber; in the smaller ancestral temples and in the great one: and at the gate leading to the court of the external audience, and in the suburbs all round.
喪不剝，奠也與？祭肉也與？ Why do they leave the offerings of the mourning rites uncovered? May they do so with the flesh of sacrifice?
既殯，旬而布材與明器。 When the coffining has taken place, in ten days after, provision should be made for the materials (for the shell), and for the vessels to the eye of fancy.
朝奠日出，夕奠逮日。 The morning offerings should be set forth (beside the body) at sunrise; the evening when the sun is about to set.
父母之喪，哭無時，使必知其反也。 In mourning for a parent, there is no restriction to (set) times for wailing. If one be sent on a mission, he must announce his return (to the spirits of his departed).
練，練衣黃里、縓緣，葛要絰，繩屨無絇，角瑱，鹿裘衡長袪，袪裼之可也。 After the twelfth month of mourning, the (inner) garment should be of white silk, with a yellow lining, and having the collar and the edges of the cuffs of a light purple. The waist-band should be of dolichos cloth; the shoes of hempen string, without the usual ornaments at the points; and the ear-plugs of horn. The lining of the deer's-fur (for winter) should be made broader and with longer cuffs, and a robe of thin silk may be worn over it.
有殯，聞遠兄弟之喪，雖緦必往；非兄弟，雖鄰不往。所識其兄弟不同居者皆吊。 When (a parent's) corpse has been coffined, if the son hear of mourning going on for a cousin at a distance, he must go (to condole), though the relationship would only require the three months' mourning. If the mourning be for a neighbour, who is not a relative, he does not go. At (the mourning) for an acquaintance, he must pay visits of condolence to all his brethren, though they might not have lived with him.
天子之棺四重；水兕革棺被之，其厚三寸，杝棺一，梓棺二，四者皆周。棺束縮二衡三，衽每束一。伯槨以端長六尺。 The coffin of the son of Heaven is fourfold. The hides of a water-buffalo and a rhinoceros, overlapping each other, (form the first), three inches in thickness. Then there is a coffin of yi wood, and there are two of the Rottlera. The four are all complete enclosures. The bands for the (composite) coffin are (five); two straight, and three cross; with a double wedge under each band (where it is on the edge). The shell is of cypress wood, in pieces six cubits long, from the trunk near the root.
天子之哭諸侯也，爵弁絰緇衣；或曰：使有司哭之，為之不以樂食。 When the son of Heaven is wailing for a feudal prince, he wears the bird's-(head) cap, a headband of sackcloth, and black robes. Some one says, 'He employs an officer to wail for him.' While so engaged, he has no music at his meals.
天子之殯也，菆涂龍輴以槨，加斧于槨上，畢涂屋，天子之禮也。 When the son of Heaven is put into his coffin it is surrounded with boards plastered over, and (rests on the hearse), on whose shafts are painted dragons, so as to form a (kind of) shell. Then over the coffin is placed a pall with the axe-heads figured on it. This being done, it forms a plastered house. Such is the rule for (the coffining of) the son of Heaven.
唯天子之喪，有別姓而哭。 It is only at the mourning rites for the son of Heaven that the feudal princes are arranged for the wailing according to their different surnames.
魯哀公誄孔丘曰：「天不遺耆老，莫相予位焉，嗚呼哀哉！尼父！」 Duke Ai of Lu eulogised Kong Qiu in the words, 'Heaven has not left the old man, and there is no one to assist me in my place. Oh! Alas! Ni-fu!'