Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. adverb already / afterwards
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: May be used as a preverbal particle in Classical Chinese to indicate a completed action (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 115). For example, 年已七十矣 'he had reached the age of seventy' (Mengzi: 9.9/50/14, translation by Legge)
  2. noun Kangxi radical 49
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Radicals 部首
    Notes: Alternate form for 己 (ABC back cover; GHC p. 7)
  3. pronoun oneself
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: A third person reflexive pronoun
  4. verb to bring to an end
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In this sense, in Literary Chinese, 已 is a full verb (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 115). For example, 人皆謂我毀明堂。毀諸?已乎?'People all tell me to pull down and remove the Hall of Distinction. Shall I pull it down, or stop the movement for that object?' (Mengzi: 2.5/9/22, translation by Legge)
  5. particle final aspectual particle
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: This literary Chinese final particle is sometimes found after noun predicates, indicating a change in knowledge about the state of things. For example, 是亂國已 one can tell that this is a disorderly country (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 19 after Xun 10/89).
  6. conjunction afterwards / thereafter
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
  7. adverb too / very / excessively
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: May be used in this sense in preclassical Chinese (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 115)

Contained in


Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷三十八 Scroll 38 110
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷三十三 志第十三: 曆二 Volume 33 Treatises 13: Calendar 2 91
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷四十二 志第二十二: 職官一 Volume 42 Treatises 22: Government Service 1 90
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷四十三 志第二十三: 職官二 Volume 43 Treatises 23: Government Service 2 89
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷三十 Scroll 30 87
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷12 志第7 禮儀七 Volume 12 Treatises 7: Rites 7 83
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷四十五 志第二十五: 輿服 Volume 45 Treatises 25: Carriages and Clothes 66
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷11 志第6 禮儀六 Volume 11 Treatises 6: Rites 6 66
History of Ming 《明史》 卷九十 志第六十六 兵二 Volume 90 Treatises 66: Military 2 62
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十九 Scroll 29 59