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Book of Changes 《易經》

乾 Qian

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Qian (represents) what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm.

初九
In the first (or lowest) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon lying hid (in the deep). It is not the time for active doing.

見大
In the second NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon appearing in the field. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man.

君子終日

Qian:
In the third NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the superior man active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. (The position is) dangerous, but there will be no mistake.


In the fourth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up, but still in the deep. There will be no mistake.

飛龍見大
In the fifth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon on the wing in the sky. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man


In the sixth (or topmost) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon exceeding the proper limits. There will be occasion for repentance.


(The lines of this hexagram are all strong and undivided, as appears from) the use of the number NINE. If the host of dragons (thus) appearing were to divest themselves of their heads, there would be good fortune.


乾元萬物行雨物流大明終始變化正性大和一作太和萬國
Vast is the 'great and originating (power)' indicated by Qian! All things owe to it their beginning: - it contains all the meaning belonging to (the name) heaven. The clouds move and the rain is distributed; the various things appear in their developed forms. (The sages) grandly understand (the connexion between) the end and the beginning, and how (the indications of) the six lines (in the hexagram) are accomplished, (each) in its season. (Accordingly) they mount (the carriage) drawn by those six dragons at the proper times, and drive through the sky. The method of Qian is to change and transform, so that everything obtains its correct nature as appointed (by the mind of Heaven); and (thereafter the conditions of) great harmony are preserved in union. The result is 'what is advantageous, and correct and firm. (The sage) appears aloft, high above all things, and the myriad states all enjoy repose.


君子自強不息
Heaven, in its motion, (gives the idea of) strength. The superior man, in accordance with this, nerves himself to ceaseless activity.


'The dragon lies hid in the deep; - it is not the time for active doing:' - (this appears from) the strong and undivided line's being in the lowest place.


'The dragon appears in the field:' - the diffusion of virtuous influence has been wide.

終日反復
'Active and vigilant all the day:' - (this refers to) the treading of the (proper) path over and over again.


'He seems to be leaping up, but is still in the deep:' - if he advance, there will be no error.

飛龍大人
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:' - the great man rouses himself to his work.

不可
'The dragon exceeds the proper limits; - there will be occasion for repentance:' - a state of fulness, that is, should not be indulged in long.

不可為首
'The same NINE (undivided) is used' (in all the places of this hexagram), but the attribute of heaven (thereby denoted) should not (always) take the foremost place.

文言
君子足以嘉會足以利物足以貞固足以幹事君子四德:「。」
What is called (under Qian) 'the great and originating' is (in man) the first and chief quality of goodness; what is called 'the penetrating' is the assemblage of excellences; what is called 'the advantageous' is the harmony of all that is right; and what is called 'the correct and firm' is the faculty of action. The superior man, embodying benevolence, is fit to preside over men; presenting the assemblage of excellences, he is fit to show in himself the union of all propriety; benefiting (all) creatures, he is fit to exhibit the harmony of all that is right; correct and firm, he is fit to manage (all) affairs. The fact that the superior man practises these four virtues justifies the application to him of the words - 'Qian represents what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm.'

初九:「。」何謂子曰:「不易不成不見不可。」
What is the meaning of the words under the first NINE, (undivided), 'The dragon lies hid (in the deep) - it is not the time for active doing?' The Master said: There he is, with the powers of the dragon, and yet lying hid. The influence of the world would make no change in him; he would do nothing (merely) to secure his fame. He can live, withdrawn from the world, without regret; he can experience disapproval without trouble of mind. Rejoicing (in opportunity), he carries his principles into action; sorrowing (for want of opportunity), he keeps with them in retirement. Yes, he is not to be torn from his root (in himself).' This is 'the dragon lying hid.'

:「見大。」何謂子曰:「正中:『見大。』。」
What is the meaning of the words under the second NINE, 'The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man?' The Master said: 'There he is, with the dragon's powers, and occupying exactly the central place. He is sincere (even) in his ordinary words, and earnest in his ordinary conduct. Guarding against depravity, he preserves his sincerity. His goodness is recognised in the world, but he does not boast of it. His virtue is extensively displayed, and transformation ensues. The language of the Yi, "The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man." refers to a ruler's virtue.'

:「君子終日。」何謂子曰:「君子進德忠信所以進德所以是故上位時而。」
What is the meaning of the words under the third NINE,' The superior man is active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening (still) careful and apprehensive - the position is dangerous, but there will be no mistake?' The Master said: 'The superior man advances in virtue, and cultivates all the sphere of his duty. His leal-heartedness and good faith are the way by which he advances in virtue. His attention to his words and establishing his sincerity are the way by which he occupies in his sphere. He knows the utmost point to be reached, and reaches it, thus showing himself in accord with the first springs (of things); he knows the end to be rested in, and rests in it, thus preserving his righteousness in accordance with that end. Therefore he occupies a high position without pride, and a low position without anxiety. Thus it is that, being active and vigilant, and careful (also) and apprehensive as the time requires, though his position be perilous, he will make no mistake.'

:「。」何謂子曰:「上下无常進退君子進德及時。」
What is the meaning of the words under the fourth NINE, 'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep - there will be no mistake?' The Master said: 'He finds no permanent place either above or below, but he does not commit the error (of advancing). He may advance or recede - there is no permanent place for him: but he does not leave his fellows. The superior man, advancing in virtue and cultivating the sphere of his duty, yet wishes (to advance only) at the (proper) time, and therefore there is no mistake.'

:「飛龍見大。」何謂子曰:「相應水流聖人萬物。」
What is the meaning of the words under the fifth NINE, 'The dragon is on the wing in the sky - it will be advantageous to see the great man?' The Master said: 'Notes of the same key respond to one another; creatures of the same nature seek one another; water flows towards the place that is (low and) damp; fire rises up towards what is dry; clouds follow the dragon, and winds follow the tiger:(so) the sage makes his appearance, and all men look to him. Things that draw their origin from heaven move towards what is above; things that draw their origin from the earth cleave to what is below:--so does everything follow its kind.'

:「。」何謂子曰:「賢人是以。」
What is the meaning of the words under the topmost NINE, 'The dragon exceeds the proper limits - there will be occasion for repentance?' The Master said: 'The position is noble, but it is not that of office; (its occupant) dwells on high, but he has no people (to rule); and the men of talent and virtue in the positions below will give him no aid - should he move in such a case, there will be occasion for repentance.'

。」。「」,。「終日」,行事。「」,。「飛龍」,。「。」。「乾元」,天下
'The dragon lies hid - it is not the time for active doing:'--the position is (too) low.
'The dragon shows himself and is in the field:'--the time (requires him still) to be unemployed.
'All the day active and vigilant:'--(he now) does his (proper) business.
'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep:'--he is making trial of himself.
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:'--(the subject of the line) is on high and ruling.
'The dragon exceeds the proper limit, and there will be occasion for repentance:'--when things have been carried to extremity, calamity ensues.
Undivided lines appear in all these representations of the great and originating power denoted by Qian:--(what follows in the Yao tells us how) all under the sky there will be good order.


。」潛藏。「」,天下文明。「終日」,。「」,。「飛龍」,。「」,。「乾元」,見天
'The dragon lies hid in the deep - it is not the time for active doing:'--the energy denoted by the undivided line is laid up and hid away as in the deep.
'The dragon appears in the field:'--all under heaven (begins to be) adorned and brightened.
'All the day active and vigilant:'--continually, as the time passes and requires, does he act.
'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep:'--a change is taking place in the method indicated by (this) Qian diagram.
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky this shows that his place is based on his heavenly virtue.
'The dragon exceeds the (proper) limit - there will be occasion for repentance:'--the time is come to an end, and so also is his opportunity.
Undivided NINES appear in all these representations of the great and originating power denoted by Qian:--and (from what follows in the Yao) we see the model (of action) afforded by heaven.

乾元性情天下
The 'greatness' and 'originating' represented by Qian refer to it as (the symbol of) what gives their beginning (to all things), and (also) secures their growth and development.
'The advantageousness and the correctness and firmness' refer to its nature and feelings (as seen in all the resulting things).

中正純粹發揮行雨天下
君子可見未成是以君子
Qian, (thus) originating, is able with its admirable benefits to benefit all under the sky. We are not told how its benefits are conferred; but how great is (its operation)! How great is (what is emblemed by) Qian!--strong, vigorous, undeflected, correct, and (in all these qualities) pure, unmixed, exquisite! The six lines, as explained (by the duke of Zhou), bring forth and display (its meaning), and everything about it is (thus) indirectly exhibited. (The great man) at the proper time drives with these six dragons through the sky. The clouds move, and the rain is distributed; all under heaven enjoys repose. In the superior man his conduct is (the fruit of) his perfected virtue, which might be seen therefore in his daily course; but the force of that phrase, 'lying hid,' requires him to keep retired, and not yet show himself, nor proceed to the full development of his course. While this is the case, the superior man (knows that) it is not the time for active doing.

君子,「見大。」
What is the meaning of the words under the second NINE, 'The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man?' The Master said: 'There he is, with the dragon's powers, and occupying exactly the central place. He is sincere (even) in his ordinary words, and earnest in his ordinary conduct. Guarding against depravity, he preserves his sincerity. His goodness is recognised in the world, but he does not boast of it. His virtue is extensively displayed, and transformation ensues. The language of the Yi, "The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man." refers to a ruler's virtue.'

時而
In the third NINE, there is a twofold symbol of) strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the field beneath. Therefore there must be active vigilance and cautious apprehension as the time requires; and. though (the position be) perilous, there will be no mistake.


In the fourth NINE, there is (the symbol of) strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the field beneath, nor is he in the place of man intermediate. Hence he is in perplexity; and being so, he has doubts about what. should be his movements, and so will give no occasion for blame.

大人天地日月四時鬼神吉凶先天後天奉天鬼神
The great man is he who is in harmony, in his attributes, with heaven and earth; in his brightness, with the sun and moon; in his orderly procedure, with the four sea-sons; and in his relation to what is fortunate and what is calamitous, in harmony with the spirit-like operations (of Providence). He may precede Heaven, and Heaven will not act in opposition to him; he may follow Heaven, but will act (only) as Heaven at the time would do. If Heaven will not act in opposition to him, how much less will men! how much less will the spirit-like operation (of Providence)!

進而不知退不知不知聖人進退存亡聖人
The force of that phrase--'exceeding the proper limits'--indicates the knowing to advance but not to retire; to maintain but not to let perish to get but not to lose. He only is the sage who knows to advance and to retire, to maintain and to let perish; and that without ever acting incorrectly. Yes, he only is the sage!


本作品在全世界都属于公有领域,因为作者逝世已经超过100,并且于192311日之前出版。
English translation: Legge 1882

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