Records of the Grand Historian 史記
《夏本紀》 Annals of Xia
Click on any word to see more details.《夏本紀》 Annals of Xia
Yu of Xia was styled Wenming. Yu's father was Gun, whose father was the Emperor Zhuanxu, whose father was Changyi, whose father was Huangdi; so Yu was Huangdi's great-great-grandson, and Zhuanxu's grandson. Yu's great-grandfather Changyi and his father Gun were both unable to sit on the Imperial throne, being simply officials.
In the time of the Emperor Yao the deluge assailed the heavens, and in its vast expanse encompassed the mountains, and overtopped the hills, so that the common people were troubled about it. Yao sought for one capable of controlling the waters. All the officials and presidents of the four mountains said, 'Gun might do it.' Yao said, 'Gun is a man who disobeys orders, and ruins his companions. He will not do.' The president of the four mountains said, 'Among his equals there is no one so worthy as Gun; I wish your Majesty would try him.' Upon which Yao, giving heed to the president of the four mountains, employed Gun to control the waters for nine years, but the waters did not abate, and the work was unaccomplished. Then the Emperor Yao sought a man in his stead, and secured Shun. Shun being employed in the public service was associated with the Son of Heaven in the administration. While on a tour of inspection, he saw that there was no evidence that Gun kept the waters under control, so he imprisoned him for life on Mount Yu, and everyone in the Empire said that Shun's decision was a just one. Shun then appointed Gun's son Yu to the post, and directed him to continue his father's occupation.
After Yao's death, the Emperor Shun asked the presidents of the four mountains, 'is there was any one who can perfect and develop Yao's undertakings, and can be employed in an official capacity?' They all said, 'There is lord Yu, the Minister of Works; he might perfect and develop Yao's labours.' Shun said, 'Ah yes! you, Yu, have regulated the water and the land, but in this office you must exert yourself.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, and would have declined in favour of Xie, Prince Millet, or Gaoyao, but Shun said 'Go and attend to your duties.'
Yu was quick, earnest, and diligent, not deviating from virtue, kind, and lovable; his word could be depended on, his voice was musical, and his body, like a balance properly adjusted, moved unweariedly and solemnly in accordance with certain fixed rules.
Yu, then in company with Yi and Prince Millet, having received the Emperor's orders, bade the princes and people raise a gang of men to make a division of the land, and following the line of the hills hew down the trees, and determine the characteristics of the high hills and great rivers. Yu was grieved in that his progenitor Gun had been punished on account of his work being incomplete, so, wearied in body and distressed in mind, he lived away from his home for 13 years, passing the door of his house without daring to enter. With ragged clothes and poor diet he paid his devotions to the spirits until his wretched hovel fell in ruins in the ditch. When travelling along the dry land he used a carriage, on the water he used a boat, in miry places a sledge, while in going over the hills he used spikes. On the one hand he used the marking-line, and on the other the compass and square. Working as the seasons permitted, and with a view to open up the nine provinces, he made the roads communicable, banked up the marshes, surveyed the hills, told Yi and his band that paddy should be planted in low damp places, and directed Lord Millet and his band, when it was difficult to obtain food, or when food was scarce, to barter their surplus stock in exchange for what they had not, so as to put all the princes on an equal footing. Yu in this way worked for the mutual convenience of the respective districts as regards the distribution of the wealth and resources of the country.
Yu started from Jizhou. He commenced his work in Jizhou at Pot's mouth, and regulated the country about the Liang and Qi mountains. Having repaired the works at Taiyuan he went to the south of Mount Yue. He was successful with his labours at Tanhuai, and went to the cross-flowing stream of Zhang. The soil of the province was white clay. Its contribution of revenue was the first of the highest class with some admixture of the second, while its fields were the average of the middle class. The Chang and Wei rivers flowed in their proper channels, and the Dalu plain was formed. The bird barbarians, wearing skin dresses, kept close on the right to the granite rocks until they came to the sea.
The Qi and Yellow rivers formed the boundaries of Yanzhou. The nine branches of the Yellow river followed their courses, and Lei Xia was a marsh, in which the Yong and Ju streams were united. The mulberry region was supplied with silkworms, and then the people came down from the heights and occupied it. The soil of the province was black loam, its herbage luxuriant, and trees tall. Its fields were the lowest of the middle class. Its contribution of revenue was fixed at what would just be deemed the correct amount, and after it had been worked for 13 years it was assimilated to the other provinces. Its tribute consisted of varnish and silk, and woven ornamental fabrics in baskets. You float along the Qi and Ta and so reach the Yellow river.
The sea and the Tai mountain formed the boundaries of Qingzhou. The territory of Yuyi was defined, and the Wei and Zi rivers flowed in their proper channels. The soil of the province was white loam, and on the sea-coast were wide tracts of salt land. Its fields, which were impregnated with salt, were the lowest of the first class, and its contribution of revenue the highest of the second. Its tribute consisted of salt, fine cloth of dolichos fibre, and productions of the sea of various kinds, with silk, hemp, lead, pine-trees, and strange stones from the valleys of the Tai. The wild tribes of Lai were shepherds, and brought in their baskets silk from the mountain mulberry. You float down the Wen, and so reach the Qi.
The sea, the Tai mountain, and the river Huai formed the boundaries of Xuzhou. The Huai and Yi rivers were regulated. The Meng and Yu mountains were made fit for cultivation. The waters of Daye formed a marsh, and the eastern plain became level. The soil of this province was red, clayey, and rich. The grass and trees grew more and more bushy. Its fields were the second of the highest class, and its contribution of revenue was the average of the second. Its tribute consisted of earth of different colours, the variegated pheasants from the valleys of mount Yu, the solitary dryandra from the south of mount Yi, and the floating musical stones from the banks of the Si. The wild tribes of the Huai brought oyster-pearls and fish, and their baskets were full of dark embroideries and pure white silken fabrics. You float along the Huai and Si and so reach the Yellow river.
The Huai river and the sea formed the boundaries of Yangzhou. The Pengli lake formed a reservoir of water, where the sun birds (i.e. the wild geese) settled. The three large rivers entered the sea, and the shaking marsh became quite still. Bamboos of different kinds were spread about, the grass grew luxuriantly, and the trees tall, but the soil was miry. The fields of this province were the lowest of the lowest class; its contribution of revenue was the highest of the lowest class, with a proportion of the class above. Its tribute consisted of gold, silver, and copper, jasper, pearls, bamboos of various kinds, ivory, hides, feathers, and hair. The wild people of the isles brought garments of grass; their baskets were filled with woven silks and cowries, and their bundles contained small oranges and pummeloes, which were rendered when required. You follow the course of the Great river and the sea, and so reach the Huai and Si rivers.
Mount Jing and the south of Mount Heng formed the boundaries of Jingzhou. The Great river and Han rivers paid their court to the sea. The nine rivers occupied all the middle of the land. The Tuo and Qian rivers flowed in their proper channels; and the land in the Yun and Meng marshes was made capable of cultivation. The soil of this province was miry; its fields were the average of the lowest class; its contribution of revenue was the lowest of the highest class. Its tribute consisted of feathers, hair, ivory, hides, gold, silver, copper, woods of the wild varnish, cudrania, triloba, juniper, and cypress trees, with grindstones, whetstones, stone arrowheads, and cinnabar, likewise the Jun and Lu bamboos, and the wood of the redthorn, of which the three states brought the most noted specimens. The three ribbed rush was put in cases which were wrapped up, while the baskets were filled with dark and purple silks and strings of coarse pearls. From the country of the nine rivers the great tortoise was presented. You float down the Great river, the Tuo, the Qian, and the Han rivers, cross over to the Luo, whence you reach the southern part of the Yellow river.
The Jing mountain and the Yellow river formed the boundaries of Yuzhou. The Yi, the Luo the Chan, and the Jian streams flowed into the Yellow river, the Yingbo waters formed a lake, and the waters of the Ke marsh were conducted to the Ming reservoir. The soil of this province was clayey, while in its lower parts it was rich, and in clods. Its fields were the highest of the middle class; its contribution of revenue was the average of the highest class, with a proportion of the very highest. The tribute was varnish, silk, fine cloth of dolichos fibre, and sackcloth. The baskets were filled with delicate embroidery and floss-silk, and stones for polishing musical stones were rendered when required. You float along the Luo until you reach the Yellow river.
The south of Mount Hua and the Blackwater formed the boundaries of Liangzhou. The Min and Bo hills were cultivated. The Tuo and Qian rivers flowed in their channels, sacrifices were offered to the hills Cai and Meng on the plateaux, and the wild tribes on the He river were successfully managed. The soil of the province was bluish black. Its fields were the highest of the lowest class; its contribution of revenue was the average of the lowest class, with proportions of the rates above and below. Its tribute consisted of the best gold, iron, silver, steel, stone arrow-heads, musical stones, and nets woven from the hair of bears and foxes. From Xiqing you come along the river Huan, float down the Qian, cross over to the Mian, enter the Wei, and ferry across the Yellow river.
The Blackwater and the western bend of the Yellow river formed the boundaries of Yongzhou. The Ruo water flowed westward; the Qing, the Qi, and Ju streams formed a junction with the Wei, as also did the waters of the Feng. The Jing and Qi hills were sacrificed too, and so were those of Zhongnan and Dunwu all the way to 'Bird-and-Rat' hill. Successful measures were taken with the plains and swamps as far as the Duye marsh. The people of Sanwei were controlled, and the Sanmiao tribes kept in good order. The soil of the province was yellow clay. Its fields were the highest of the highest class, while its contribution of revenue was the lowest of the second. Its tribute was jade, topazes, and white cornelian stones. From 'Stonepile' hill you float on to 'Dragongate' on the western branch of the Yellow river at its junction with the Wei river. The western Jung tribes from the Gunlun, Hsichih, and Ch『üsou mountains with their hair-cloth and furs were kept in order.
Journeying over the nine mountains, you go from Qian and Qi hills to mount Jing; passing the Yellow river, Pot's mouth, and Leishou you come to Taiyue; from Dizhu and Xicheng hills to 'King's house'; from Taihang and Mount Chang to the granite rocks and the sea; from Xiqing, Zhuyu, and 'Bird-and-Rat' hills to mount Taihua; from 'Bear's-ear,' Waifang, and Tongbo hills to Fuwei; you journey from Bozhong to mount Jing; from Neifang to Dabie, and from the south of Mount Min to Mount Heng, and cross the nine rivers to the Fuqian plain.
Following the course of the nine large rivers: from the Ruo river you go to Heli, whence the superfluous water flows into the Rolling sands. You trace the Blackwater to Sanwei, where it enters the southern sea; you trace the Yellow river from 'Stone-pile' to 'Dragongate,' southward to the north of Mount Hua, eastward to Dizhu, again eastward to the ford Meng, eastward you pass the junction of the Luo river to Dapei, northward past the Jiang water to Dalu, northward the stream is divided and becomes the nine rivers, reunited it forms the opposing river and flows into the sea. From Bozhong you trace the course of the Yang. Flowing eastward it becomes the Han, further east it becomes the Canglang water, passing the three dykes it goes to Dabie, southward it enters the great river, eastward whirling on it forms the Pengli marsh, again eastward it forms the northern great river and enters the sea. From mount Min you trace the great river, which branching to the east becomes the Tuo, again eastward it comes to the Li, passes the nine great rivers and comes to the eastern ridge, flows eastward, winds to the north, and joins the eddies, eastward it becomes the middle great river and enters the sea. Tracing the course of the Yan river—it flows to the east, becomes the Qi, enters the Yellow river, flows on and becomes the Ying; eastward it comes out to the north of Taoqiu, further east flows into the Ke marsh, again north-eastward it unites with the Wen, and still further to the north-east it enters the sea. Tracing the course of the Huai from Tongbo, to the eastward it unites with the Si and Yi rivers, and flowing to the east enters the sea. Tracing the course of the Wei from 'Bird-and-rat-in-the-same-hole' hill—it unites to the east with the Feng, further to the north-east it flows into the Jing, to the east passing the Qi and Ju streams it enters the Yellow river. Tracing the course of the Luo from 'Bear's-ear' hill, on the north-east it unites with the Jian and Chan, further to the east it unites with the Yi, and to the north-east enters the Yellow river.
So throughout the nine provinces a similar order was effected: the four coasts were built over, the hills were cleared of their wood and sacrificed to, the streams had their sources scoured out, the marshes were well banked, and all within the four seas had access to the capital. The six treasuries of nature were made the most of, and the various parts of the country exactly compared so that the receipt of revenue could be carefully adjusted according to their resources. The three characters of the soil were classified, and the taxation fixed. The central government conferred lands and surnames. Revenue was paid to the Emperor's exalted virtue, which was set up as an example, and none opposed his Majesty's action.
Now beyond the Emperor's capital 500 li constituted the Imperial domain. From the first hundred li they brought, as revenue, the whole plant of the grain, from the second the ears, from the third the straw, but the people had to perform feudal services, from the fourth the grain in the husk, and from the fifth the grain cleaned. Five hundred li beyond the Imperial domain constituted the domain of the nobles. The first hundred li formed the allotments to the feudal nobles, the second hundred those to the people employed by the State, and the other 300 those to the various princes. Five hundred li beyond the nobles' domain lay the peaceful domain. In the first 300 li they cultivated learning and the moral duties, and in the other 200 their energies lay in the direction of war and defence. Five hundred li beyond the peaceful domain was the domain of restraint. The first 300 were occupied by the Yi tribes, and the other 200 by criminals undergoing the lesser banishment. Five hundred li beyond the domain of restraint lay the wild domain. Three hundred li were occupied by the Man tribes, and the other 200 li by criminals undergoing the greater banishment.
On the east reaching to the sea, on the west extending to the rolling sands, to the utmost limits of the north and south, Yu's fame and influence spread everywhere within the four seas, so the Emperor presented him with a dark-coloured sceptre, thus announcing to the empire the completion of his work. The empire was at peace and well governed.
Gaoyao was made chief minister of state with a view to his ruling the people. The emperor Shun gave audience to Yu, Poyi, and Gaoyao, who addressed each other before the Emperor. Gaoyao, setting forth his counsels, said, 'If a man sincerely follows the path of duty and virtue, his counsellors will be intelligent, and those who aid him will act in harmony.' Yu said, 'Yes, but what do you mean?' Gaoyao said, 'Oh! he will be careful about his personal cultivation, and will think constantly about it. Thus he will pay due regard to precedence among the nine branches of his kindred, all the intelligent will exert themselves in his service, and so from what is at hand he may attain to what is far off.' Yu made obeisance at these excellent words, and said, 'It is so.' Gaoyao said 'Oh! It all lies in knowing mankind, and in quieting the people.' Yu said, 'Alas! to attain to all this would be difficult even for the Emperor. He who knows men is wise; he who can put men into the posts for which they are fit, and can quiet the people, is benevolent, and the black-haired race will cherish him in their hearts. When a man can be thus wise and kind, why should he have anxiety about a Huandou? why to be removing a chief of the Miao tribes? why should he fear a man of specious words, good appearance, and artful ways?' Gaoyao said, 'Just so! there are in all nine virtues, and when we say that a man possesses these virtues it is as much as to say that he begins to do such and such things. They are liberality combined with dignity, mildness combined with firmness, bluntness combined with respect, aptness for government combined with caution, docility combined with boldness, straightforwardness combined with gentleness, easy negligence combined with discrimination, resolution combined with sincerity, and courage combined with justice. If these are apparent, and that continuously, how fortunate it will be. He who daily displays three of these virtues could early and late support and educate a family. He who is strict and reverent in cultivating six of these virtues could brilliantly conduct the affairs of the State. When such men are received and found everywhere, the possessors of those nine virtues will all be employed, and men of eminence will hold office, and the various officers will be respectful and diligent, not teaching heretical, vicious, or strange doctrines. If such men and such officers do not exist it may be said that the affairs of Heaven are in confusion. Heaven punishes the guilty, and the five punishments can be severally applied for that purpose. Are my words sound, and can they be put in force?' Yu said, 'Your words are perfect, and can be successfully put in force.' Gaoyao said, 'As to that I do not know, but I aim at assisting in the path of duty.'
The Emperor Shun said to Yu, 'Will you, too, make a brilliant speech?' Yu did obeisance and said, 'Ah! what can I say? I aim at being assiduous from day to day.' Gaoyao, teasing Yu, said, 'What do you mean by being assiduous?' Yu said, 'When the flood assailed the heavens, and in its vast expanse encompassed the mountains and overtopped the hills, so that the common people were overcome by the water, I travelled on dry land in a carriage, went about on the water in a boat, in miry places I used a sledge, while in going over the hills I used spikes. All along the hills I hewed paths through the woods, and together with Yi supplied the people with paddy and fresh meat. In order to drain the nine streams into the four seas, I deepened the channels and canals, and connected them with the rivers, and together with 'Millet' and the people in general when it was difficult to obtain food, and when food was scarce I bartered the surplus stock to make up for deficiencies, and removed the stores. Thus the people were quieted, and the various states properly governed.' Gaoyao said, 'Yes! this was good on your part.'
Yu said, 'Ah! your Majesty, carefully maintain the Throne which you occupy, and be quiet in your behaviour, assist virtue, and the nation will grandly respond to your pure desires. It will thus be manifest that you await the decrees of the Supreme Being, and will not Heaven renew its favouring appointment by conferring blessings on you?' The Emperor said, 'Dear me! ministers! ministers! you constitute my legs and arms, my ears and eyes. If I wish to aid and support the people, you help me to do so. If I wish to see the emblematic figures of the ancients — the sun, moon, and stars — which are embroidered on the robes and coloured silks, you see them clearly for me. If I wish to hear the six pitchpipes, the five notes, and the eight musical instruments on the adjustment of which depend good government or misrule, and the consequent rise or decline of the five duties, you hear them for me. If I do wrong, you have to correct me. Do not flatter me to my face and speak evil of me behind my back. Be reverent, ye four ministers, and all ye calumniating minions of officials. If the prince's virtue is honestly displayed all men will be pure.' Yu said, 'Yes! should your Majesty not act thus, but equally employ the good and bad, you will gain no credit.'
The Emperor said, 'Do not be arrogant like Zhu of Dan, who took his pleasure only in idleness and dissipation. He would make boats go where there was no water, introduced licentious friends into his family, and thereby cut off the hereditary honours of his house. I could not follow that line of conduct.' Yu said, 'I was married at Tushan on the days xin and ren, and on the days gui and jia my son Qi was born. I did not treat him as a son, and therefore was able to complete my labours on the water and on land. I assisted, in completing the five Tenures, extending over 5000 li. In the provinces I appointed twelve tutors, and in the regions beyond to the four seas I established five presidents. These all did their duty, and achieved great results, but the Miao tribes were obstinate, and refused to do their work. Think of this, your Majesty.' The Emperor said, 'That my virtue is the guide is the result of your orderly arrangements.'
Gaoyao therefore, respecting Yu's virtues, bade the people carry out as a rule his plan of preferring admonition, but also made use of punishments. Shun's virtues were very clear.
Kui played some music; the spirits of Imperial ancestors, and hosts of nobles gave place to one another, and even birds and beasts wheeled about and danced. When the nine airs of Shun's music were played, the phoenixes came and put themselves in attitudes, the different beasts led each other on to dance, and the various officials were really in harmony. The Emperor upon this composed the following ode, 'Being set on high by the favouring appointment of Heaven, we must be careful at every moment, and in every particular.' He then sang as follows, 'When the members are happy, the head is exalted, and the various kinds of work are happily performed.' Gaoyao did obeisance with his head to his hands, and then to the ground, and with a loud voice said, 'Oh! think. It is yours to lead on and originate affairs. Pay careful attention to your laws. Be cautious.' He continued his song, saying, 'When the head is intelligent, the members are good, and all business will prosper.' Shun again sang as follows, 'When the head is vexatious, the members are idle, and all business is ruined.' The Emperor bowed and said, 'Yes, go and be reverent!' The whole nation upon this applauded Yu's brilliant musical performance, and the divine lord of hills and streams.
The Emperor Shun presented Yu to Heaven as his heir, and 17 years afterwards the Emperor Shun died. The three years' mourning being over, Yu retired before Shun's son Shangjun to the town of Yang, but the princes of the empire all left Shangjun, and went to Yu's court, and Yu accordingly occupied the Imperial throne. Facing the south he gave audience to the nation. His dynastic appellation was (Xia hou) Prince of Xia, and his surname Si.
The Emperor Yu sat on the throne and recommended Gaoyao for promotion, transferring also the administration of affairs to him, but Gaoyao died, and his descendants were enfeoffed with the principalities of Yingliu and Xu. The prince then recommended Yi for the appointment of administrator of affairs.
Ten years elapsed, when the Emperor Yu, having gone to the east on a tour of inspection, died at Guiji, and the rule of the empire was given to Yi. When the three years' mourning was over, Yi resigned in favour of Yu's son Qi, and retired to the south of Mount Ji. Yu's son Qi was worthy, and the nation fixed its desires upon him, but when Yu died, although the rule was given to Yi, he supported Yu but a few days, when the nation not being content the princes all left Yi, and went to Qi's court saying, 'He is the son of our sovereign' emperor Yu. Qi then succeeded to the Imperial throne, and became Emperor Qi, the Prince of Xia.
The Prince of Xia, Emperor Qi, was the son of Yu, his mother being the daughter of the lord of Tushan.
As the lord of Hu would not submit, Qi attacked him, and there was a great battle at Han. Just before the engagement the speech at Gan was delivered to the six generals, who were summoned together; Qi said, 'Ah! ye who are engaged in my six armies, I have a solemn announcement to make to you. The chief of Hu violently sets at naught the five human relations, and idly casts aside the three obligations of duty. Heaven will on this account oppose him and cut off the span of his life, and I am now but reverently executing the punishment appointed by Heaven. If you on the left do not do your work on the left, and you on the right do not do your work on the right, it will be a disregard of my orders. If you, charioteers, do not observe the rules for the management of your horses, it will be a disregard of my orders. You who obey my orders shall be rewarded in the ancestral temple, but you who disobey my orders shall be slain before the altar of the spirits of the land, and I will destroy both you and your children. He thereupon destroyed the chief of Hu, and the whole nation went to the court of the Prince of Xia.
Emperor Qi died, and his son Emperor Taikang (Kang the first) came to the throne. The Emperor Taikang lost his kingdom; his five brothers waited for him on the north of the Luo river, and composed the song of the five sons.
Kang the first died, and his brother Kang the second came to the throne, that is the Emperor Kang the second. In the time of the Emperor Kang the second, Xi and He, indulging in wine and dissipation, neglected the seasons, and let the calendar get into confusion. Yin went to punish them, and the 'punitive expedition of Yin' was composed.
Kang the second died, and his son Emperor Xiang came to the throne. Emperor Xiang died, and his Son Kang the third came to the throne. Emperor Kang the third died, and his son Emperor Chu came to the throne. Emperor Chu died, and his son Emperor Huai came the throne. Emperor Huai died, and his Son Emperor Mang came to the throne. Emperor Mang died, and his Son Emperor Xie came to the throne. Emperor Xie died, and his son Emperor Bujiang came to the throne. Emperor Bujiang died, and his brother Emperor Jiong came to the throne. Emperor Jiong died, and his Son Emperor Jin came to the throne. Emperor Jin died, and Emperor Bujiang's son Kongjia, that is Emperor Kongjia, came to the throne. Emperor Kongjia was fond of enquiring into spiritual matters, and indulged in dissipation, and the virtue of the princes of Xia having degenerated, the chiefs rebelled. Heaven sent down two dragons, a male and a female. Kongjia could not feed them, and could not obtain a dragon-keeper. After the decline of Taotang (Yao) one of his descendants, Liu Lei, learnt to train dragons, and he was chosen out of the dragon-keepers to wait on Kongjia, who gave him the title of dragon-tamer, which was inherited by the descendants of the Shiwei. The female dragon died, and he served it up as a meal for the Prince of Xia, but the latter having sent some one to look for it, he became frightened and ran away.
Kongjia died, and his son Emperor Gao came to the throne. Emperor Gao died, and his son Emperor Fa came to the throne. Emperor Fa died, and his son Emperor Lu Gui, that is Jie, came to the throne. Regarding the reign of the Emperor Jie, ever since the time of Kongjia the barons had frequently rebelled. Jie of Xia did not strive after virtue, and the wars injured the people. Unable to endure their wrongs they summoned Tang to their aid, but he was imprisoned in the tower of Xia; being afterwards released. Tang cultivated virtue, and the princes all went over to him, so Tang led an army to attack Jie of Xia. Jie fled to Mingtiao, and was eventually driven out and slain. Jie observed to someone, 'I regret that I did not take the opportunity of killing Tang in the tower of Xia, and then I should not have been brought to such a pass.' Tang, being seated on the Imperial throne, superseded Xia, and gave audience to the people. Tang enfeoffed the descendants of the Xias. Until the time of the Zhou dynasty they held the principality of Qi.
Source: Chinese Text Project http://ctext.org/shiji Partial translation adapted from Herbert J. Allen's "Ssŭma Ch'ien's Historical Records" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1894).
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