1. adverb naturally; of course; certainly
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 自然 (CCD 1 '自' 1; GHDC '自' 4; Han Dian '自' adv 1)
  2. preposition from; since
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In the sense of 从 (CCD 2 '自'; GHDC '自' 5; Han Dian '自' prep; Rouzer 2007, p. 6)
  3. pronoun self; oneself; itself
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In this sense 自 means 自己. In Literary Chinese this relfexive personal pronoun always occurs in front of a verb (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 83). For example, 所謂誠其意者,毋自欺也 What is meant by 'making the thoughts sincere.' is the allowing no self-deception.' (The Classic of Rites, The Great Learning禮記‧大學, trans. by Legge 1885; CCD 1 '自' 2; GHDC '自' 1; Han Dian '自' pro 1; Rouzer 2007, p. 6)
  4. noun Kangxi radical 132
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Radicals
    Notes: (ABC back cover; GHC p. 7)
  5. proper noun Zi
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Names
    Notes: (Guoyu '自' n 2)
  6. noun a nose
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Health
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 鼻子 (Han Dian '自' 2)
  7. noun the beginning; the start
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 开头 (GHDC '自' 2; Han Dian '自' 3)
  8. noun origin
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 起源 (Guoyu 1 '自' n 1; GHDC '自' 3; Han Dian '自' 4)
  9. adverb originally
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 本来 (Han Dian '自' adv 2)
  10. adverb still; to remain
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 仍旧 or 依然 (GHDC '自' 9; Han Dian '自' adv 5)
  11. adverb in person; personally
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 亲自 (Han Dian '自' adv 6)
  12. adverb in addition /besides
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 别自 or 另外 (Han Dian '自' adv 7)
  13. conjunction if; even if
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 假如 (GHDC '自' 8; Han Dian '自' conj 1)
  14. conjunction but
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 可是 (Han Dian '自' conj 4)
  15. conjunction because
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 因为 and 由于 (GHDC '自' 6; Han Dian '自' conj 5)
  16. verb to employ; to use
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 用 (GHDC '自' 7; Han Dian '自' v 1)
  17. verb to be
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words
    Notes: In this sense 自 has the same meaning as 是 (Han Dian '自' v 2)

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