Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. conjunction so as to / in order to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 因此 (Guoyu '以' conj 3; Rouzer 2007, p. 10; Unihan '以')
  2. preposition to use / to regard as
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: May be used as a coverb in this sense, in a serial verb construction. A second form is 以 A 为 B, 'regard A as B.' (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 49)
  3. verb to use / to grasp
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 以 can be used as a main verb, 以 is a transitive verb with two objects. In this use, it has the form '以 A B', which means 'use A to do B'. It can also take the form 'B 以 A', which means the same thing. The object A is the instrument by which the action B is performed. For example, 杀人以梃 'to kill a person using a club.' (Guoyu '以' v 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 47, quote from Meng 1A/4)
  4. preposition according to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 按 (Guoyu '以' prep 2)
  5. preposition because of
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 因为; may also be thought of as a coverb when used in this sense in Literary Chinese (Guoyu '以' prep 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 162)
  6. preposition on a certain date
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  7. conjunction and / as well as
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (Guoyu '以' conj 4)
  8. verb to rely on
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In the sense of 仰赖 (Guoyu '以' v 2)
  9. verb to regard
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In the sense of 认为 (Guoyu '以' v 3)
  10. verb to be able to
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In the sense of 能够 (Guoyu '以' v 4)
  11. verb to order / to command
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In the sense of 令 (Guoyu '以' v 5)
  12. conjunction further / moreover
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 而 or 且 (Guoyu '以' conj 1)
  13. auxiliary verb used after a verb
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this usage 以 is placed after a verb without meaning (Guoyu '以' aux)
  14. adverb very
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this usage 以 is an adverb with the same meaning 太 or 甚 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  15. adverb already
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 已经 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  16. adverb increasingly
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 愈益 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  17. noun a reason / a cause
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Condition 状况
    Notes: In the sense of 缘故 (Guoyu '以' n 1)
  18. proper noun Israel
    Domain: Geography 地理学 , Subdomain: Asia 亚洲 , Concept: Country 国家
    Notes: An abbreviation for 以色列 (Guoyu '以' n 2)
  19. proper noun Yi
    Domain: Names 名字 , Concept: Surname 姓氏
    Notes: (Guoyu '以' n 3)

Contained in

以上可以以后以色列以来难以以内以外予以以下以及足以所以何以以为全力以赴以此加以以前以东以南以西以北以便除了_以外给以以太网以至以致得以以免以身作则以往以至于自以为是用以辅以老吾老以及人之老幼吾幼以及人之幼藉以借以以少胜多以降挟天子以令诸侯无以复加引以为傲以是是以以要言之持之以恒年以来

Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 692
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 襄公 Lord Xiang 523
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷十七下 本紀第十七下: 文宗下 Volume 17 Annals 17: Wenzong 2 395
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷17 志第12 律曆中 Volume 17 Treatises 12: Measures and the Calendar 2 359
Daode Jing 《道德經》 Daode Jing 《道德經》 344
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷三十四 志第十四: 曆三 Volume 34 Treatises 14: Calendar 3 337
Rites of Zhou 《周禮》 地官司徒 第二 2. Office of Earth and Minster of Education and Social Welfare 302
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷十三 本紀第十三: 德宗下 Volume 13 Annals 13: Dezong 2 289
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷十二 本紀第十二: 德宗上 Volume 12 Annals 12: Dezong 1 288
Records of the Three Kingdoms 《三國志》 卷一 魏書一 武帝紀 Volume 1: Book of Wei 1 - Annals of Emperor Wu 284