zhě zhuó

  1. zhě particle used after a verb to indicate a person who does the action
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: When placed after a single verb, the phrase indicates the person who performs the action (GHC '者' 1; Kroll 2015 '者' 1a, p. 597)
  2. zhě pronoun that
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: Used after a numeral 一、二、三 etc to refer to a preceding object (GHC '者' 1; Guoyu '者' pronoun; Mathews 1931 '者', p. 31; Unihan '者'; XHZD '者' 3, p. 964)
  3. zhě particle nominalizing function word
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese 者 nominalizes a verb phrase, in the pattern 'VP 者', which means the thing or person that does verb phrase VP. 者 may also stand for the nominalization of the verb phrase as a whole, ie 'the doing of VP.' The difference between the two is distinguised by the context (Kroll 2015 '者' 1, p. 597; GHC '者' 1; Pulleyblank 1995, pp. 66-67; XHZD '者' 1, p. 964). For example, 孝弟也者,其為仁之本與 'Filial piety and fraternal submission! - are they not the root of all benevolent actions' (Lunyu 1:2)?
  4. zhě particle used to mark a definition
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used to mark a definition or as as generalization after a noun or noun phrase, or with numbered lists (GHC '者' 1; Kroll 2015 '者' 3, p. 597; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 74; XHZD '者' 4, p. 964)
  5. zhě particle used to mark a pause
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Guoyu '者' particle 1; XHZD '者' 2, p. 964)
  6. zhě particle topic marker / that / it
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used after a noun or noun phrase to mark the topic of the sentence (GHC '者' 2; Guoyu '者' particle 2; Kroll 2015 '者' 2, p. 597)
  7. zhuó adverb according to
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: Interchangable with 着, in the sense of局 处于 (GHC '者' 3).

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