Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

zhuó zhě

  1. zhě particle used after a verb to indicate a person who does the action
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: When placed after a single verb, the phrase indicates the person who performs the action (GHC '者' 1; Kroll '者' 1a).
  2. zhě pronoun that
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Used after a numeral 一、二、三 etc to refer to a preceding object (GHC '者' 1)
  3. zhě particle nominalizing function word
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese 者 nominalizes a verb phrase, in the pattern 'VP 者', which means the thing or person that does verb phrase VP. 者 may also stand for the nominalization of the verb phrase as a whole, ie 'the doing of VP.' The difference between the two is distinguised by the context (Kroll '者' 1; GHC '者' 1; Pulleyblank 1995, pp. 66-67). For example, 孝弟也者,其為仁之本與 'Filial piety and fraternal submission! - are they not the root of all benevolent actions' (Lunyu 1:2)?
  4. zhě particle used to mark a definition
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used to mark a definition or as as generalization after a noun or noun phrase (GHC '者' 1; Kroll '者' 3; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 74).
  5. zhě particle used to mark a command
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  6. zhě particle topic marker / that / it
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used after a noun or noun phrase to mark the topic of the sentence (GHC '者' 2; Kroll '者' 2).
  7. zhuó adverb according to
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Interchangable with 着, in the sense of局 处于 (GHC '者' 3).

Contained in

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Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《中庸章句》 Commentary on Doctrine of the Mean 181
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《盡心章句上》 Commentary on Jin Xin I 156
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《樂書》 Music 141
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 133
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 襄公 Lord Xiang 131
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《龜策列傳》 Biographies of Diviners 121
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《公孫丑章句上》 Commentary on Gong Sun Chou I 119
The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《樂記》 Record of Music 118
Gongyang's Commentary on Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋公羊傳》 僖公 Lord Xi 117
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《告子章句上》 Commentary on Gaozi I 115