Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

zhě zhuó

  1. zhě particle used after a verb to indicate a person who does the action
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: When placed after a single verb, the phrase indicates the person who performs the action (GHC '者' 1; Kroll '者' 1a).
  2. zhě pronoun that
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Used after a numeral 一、二、三 etc to refer to a preceding object (GHC '者' 1)
  3. zhě particle nominalizing function word
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese 者 nominalizes a verb phrase, in the pattern 'VP 者', which means the thing or person that does verb phrase VP. 者 may also stand for the nominalization of the verb phrase as a whole, ie 'the doing of VP.' The difference between the two is distinguised by the context (Kroll '者' 1; GHC '者' 1; Pulleyblank 1995, pp. 66-67). For example, 孝弟也者,其為仁之本與 'Filial piety and fraternal submission! - are they not the root of all benevolent actions' (Lunyu 1:2)?
  4. zhě particle used to mark a definition
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used to mark a definition or as as generalization after a noun or noun phrase (GHC '者' 1; Kroll '者' 3; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 74).
  5. zhě particle used to mark a command
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  6. zhě particle topic marker / that / it
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 者 may be used after a noun or noun phrase to mark the topic of the sentence (GHC '者' 2; Kroll '者' 2).
  7. zhuó adverb according to
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Interchangable with 着, in the sense of局 处于 (GHC '者' 3).

Contained in

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Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷一百〇五 志第五十三: 刑法四 Volume 105 Treatises 58: Punishment and Law 4 460
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷一百〇三 志第五十一: 刑法二 Volume 103 Treatises 56: Punishment and Law 2 333
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷一百〇四 志第五十二: 刑法三 Volume 104 Treatises 57: Punishment and Law 3 322
History of Ming 《明史》 卷九十三 志第六十九 刑法一 Volume 93 Treatises 69: Punishment and Law 1 221
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷17 志第12 律曆中 Volume 17 Treatises 12: Measures and the Calendar 2 214
Huainanzi 《淮南子》 卷九 主術訓 Chapter 9: The Sovereign's Methods 214
History of Song 《宋史》 卷一百七十三 志第一百二十六 食貨上一 Volume 173 Treatises 126: Finance and Economics 1a 211
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷一百〇二 志第五十: 刑法一 Volume 102 Treatises 55: Punishment and Law 1 207
History of Song 《宋史》 卷一百六十 志第一百十三 選舉六 Volume 160 Treatises 113: Selection and appointment of Officials 6 192
Huainanzi 《淮南子》 卷十五 兵略訓 Chapter 15: Military Planning 187