When learning modern Chinese there is good motivation for studying some of the basics of literary Chinese. The similarities are surprising and the differences interesting as well. Native English speakers may wonder about the relevance of this when making an analogy of modern English to Old English or perhaps modern Italian to Latin. Perhaps because written Chinese can be read independently of pronunciation it has survived in such a recognizable form for so long and been used over a very broad geographic area, including all of East Asia. In fact, literary Chinese is far more commonly encountered in China than Old English or Latin is encountered in the West since it is used commonly in idioms, quotes, and place names. Due to the common set of characters, literary Chinese can be embedded in modern Chinese as needed.
When studying Chinese history, literature, and philosophy it is common to study original texts, of which are many and, in contrast to Old English and Latin, have a continuous tradition from the beginning of writing in China until the transition from classical Chinese to modern Chinese. Idioms are much more commonly encountered in modern Chinese than modern English and these mostly have their roots in classical Chinese. The many calligraphic works decorating Chinese buildings are invariably classical poems. Literary Chinese is encountered in Buddhist texts, whose original translations from Sanskrit are still in wide use today in the Chinese Buddhist community.
This series of web pages was written to be a gentle introduction for learners with minimal background in modern Chinese or even none at all. You can mouse over any of the Chinese text to find the English and Pinyin for the Chinese and follow a hyperlink to additional details. Where there are multiple definitions for a given word the mouseover and link will be for the right alternative for the given context, especially where the classical use differs from the modern use.
For more information on the development of Classical Chinese and its Grammar see Fuller (Fuller, 2004) and Pulleyblank (Pulleyblank, 1995) and the additional references listed in the References section.
The first known forms of Chinese writings were written on animal bones in a style known as oracle bone script 甲骨文 in the Shang Dynasty 商 (1700 to 1045 BCE). In the Zhou Dynasty 周 (1045—221 BCE) there were inscriptions on bronze vessels. The very early Chinese classics The Book of Changes or I Ching 易经, Book of History 书经, and Book of Songs 诗经 also date from the Zhou Dynasty. These texts are in a very early style referred to as Old Chinese 上古汉语 (Norman, 1988, p. 23).
The terms Classical Chinese (古文) and Literary Chinese (文言文 or 文言) are often loosely used interchangably. Classical Chinese more properly refers to written Chinese from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty. (Norman, 1988, p. 83) This include the time of Confucius 孔子 (c. 551—479 BCE), continues through the Warring States Period 战国时代 (475—221 BCE) to the Qin Dynasty 秦, when China was first unified in 221 BCE. This was the period of the great philosphers, including the founders of the schools of Confucianism 儒家, Taoism 道家, Legalism 法家, and Mohism 墨家. After the unification of China in the Qin there was convergence in the written language. However, as time went on the written form 文言 literary Chinese diverged from the spoken form. Literary Chinese refers to the style of written Chinese commonly used right through to the end of the Qing Dynasty 清.
There are considerable regional differences between the styles of writing during the classical period, including (1) the continuation of a more archaic style, including Zuozhuan 左传 and Book of Historical Narrative 国语; (2) a Lu 鲁 style, including The Analects of Confucius 论语 and Mencius 孟子; (3) a Chu 楚 style, including Sorrow at Parting 离骚 in 楚辞 Songs of Chu; and (4) a style found in 庄子 Zhuang Zi, 韩非子 Han Feizi, and 荀子 Xun Zi that leads towards a common standard.
Buddhist texts were brought to China from India and translated from Sanskrit and Pali over a period of many hundred years, starting in the Han 汉 (221 BCE—220 CE), continuing through to the Tang 唐 (618—907 CE). Some of these translations are still popular today, for example The Sutra on the Eight Realizations of the Great Beings 佛说八大人觉经 (Nhất Hạnh, 1987) translated by the Buddhist monk An Shi Gao 安世高 in the Later Han and Heart Sutra 心经 translated by the Chinese monk Xuanzang 玄奘 (602—664 CE) in the Tang. (Yifa et al., 2006)
These notes focus on the classical period.
Modern Chinese is considered a polysyllabic language because most of the words in the language have two characters. Classical Chinese is considered basically a monosyllabic language. That is most words consist of a single character. There are a number of notable exceptions to this, however:
Modern Chinese has a number of affixes and particles, such as 了、过、者、得. However, compared with European languages it has relatively few affixes. Classical Chinese has even fewer affixes than modern Chinese. Two plural forms that were commonly used from the Warring States Period on are 诸 and 等.
Spoken Chinese has varied over its history and geographic areas and sounds used in previous times can only be reconstructed from fragmentary evidence. It is generally divided into three periods: Old Chinese (Shang 商 and Zhou 周 to Western Han 西汉), Middle Chinese (Eastern Han 东汉 to Early Tang 初唐), and Mandarin (Tang 唐 to Qing 清).
Much of the knowledge of Old Chinese comes from analysis of rhymes in The Book of Songs 诗经 and Erya 尔雅, the first Chinese dictionary, dating to about the third century BCE. In addition, comparisons with other languages and loan words from Indo-European languages have been used to understand pronunciation of Old Chinese. In addition, many radicals are related to the pronunciation of characters. Also, the dictionary, Shuo Wen Jie Zi 说文解字 appeared in the Han Dynasty.
Knowledge of Middle Chinese is more complete than Old Chinese because Chinese scholars of the time compiled rhyming dictionaries, including Qieyun 切韵 compiled by Lu Fayan 陆法言 in about 600 CE. The the fan qie 反切 system used in dictionaries, such as Qieyun, each entry consisted of two characters to represent the sound of a word. The first character had the same initial sound and the second character had the same final sound. Qieyun formed the basis of Guangyun dictionary 广韵 in around 1011 CE after many revisions and additions. The fan qie system was also used in the Kangxi Dictionary 康熙字典 (1716) considered the first modern Chinese dictionary.
Middle Chinese had four tones but there were different from modern Chinese. The were level 平, rising 上, falling 去, and entering 入. Entering tones ended with a p, t, or k. The tones were first documented by Shen Yue 沈约 in the fifth century CE. In the Qieyun dictionaries the tones were represented by small circles at the four corners of the characters.
When we think about the diversity of the modern dialects of Chinese we can appreciate the difficulty of understanding pronunciation from the various regions of China thoughout the past 2,400 years or so. Nevertheless, classical Chinese is commonly read aloud in modern Mandarin, for example in Buddhist chanting. There are eight major modern dialects that can be divided into three groups.
Shuo Wen Jie Zi 说文解字 was the first etymological dictionary, attributed to Xu Shen 许慎 in the second century CE. Shuowen Jiezi had six methods for forming Chinese characters 六书:
The general rules of word order are
Words can shift grammatical function in classical Chinese within certain patterns. Here are a few constant rules to help distinguish grammatical function.
Nouns are negated by 非，无.
虽宝非用。 Even jewels have no use. 左思《三部赋序》 (From Zuo Si, Three Part Poetic Essay)
无衣无，何以来？ Without clothes or hemp, how will we pass the years? 《诗经》 (From the Book of Songs)
Verbs are negated by 未，不，勿，某
However, direct objects can be placed after a negating word and before the verb, which can make this rule less obvious to recognize.
The topic is often omitted when it is understood.
There are five types of grammatical relationships: topic-comment, verb-object, coordination, subordination, and number complement.
This is a variation of the subject-predicate relation but a little more broad. The topic is the focus of the phrase and most often is placed first. The comment is a statement about the topic. The simplest type of topic-comment phrase is a nominal sentence that identifies one noun with another. Nominal sentences with the pattern A B 也 most frequently mean A is a B or A is a type of B. A 犹 B 也 (A is like B) is another form of nominal sentence.
Topicalization is the transfer of the usual order of a sentence to change the element that is being stressed. This is an important tool in classical Chinese rhetoric. For example, from 庄子 Zhuang Zi,
What I, your servant, like is The Way.
Topicalization is one type of a broader movement of sentence elements to the front called exposure. Exposure is often used for rhetorical emphasis or to mark a contrast.
The simplest case of a verb-object is a verb and a direct object. For example, 饮酒 (to drink wine). Sometimes the object of a verb is another verb. For example, 使归 (to cause to return).
Time and place information usually expressed through prepositional phrases in English and modern Chinese are expressed using verb-object relations in classical Chinese. The time and place words are locative objects of verbs. For example, 居山 (to live in the mountains). Sometimes the locative particle 于 will be used. However, some references classify 于 as a preposition in the context of classical Chinese.
Auxiliary verbs are used in a similar way to modern Chinese. Frequently used auxiliary verbs are 应， 能， 必， 肯， 须. For example, 应归 (should return).
In a coordinate relationship two terms of the same type are used together. The elements may be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, or phrases. The conjunctions 与， 且， 而， 或， and 将 are frequently used to join terms in a coordinate relationship. For example, 我与 (you and I). However, conjunctions are also often omitted.
In a subordinate relation the first element modifies the second. The first element is the modifier and the second element is called the head. For example, 青草 green (modifier ) grass (head). The elements of a subordinate relation can be nouns, verbs, or phrases.
之 is a marker for explicit subordination to a noun. It turns a verbal phrase into a nominal phrase. For example, 日出之 (the sun at sunrise, from 说苑 Garden of Stories).
A number complement relation has the form (number) + (measure). Here the measure is a noun that is a measure of some kind of quantity. For example, 二人 (two people). Measure words, as found in modern Chinese, originated from this form.
Punctuation in classical Chinese has mostly been added at a later date to make reading easier. In particular, question marks, quotation marks, and semi-colons were not used at all in classical Chinese. Some classical Chinese text used no punctation at all, making it very difficult for modern readers. Some texts used periods in place of both periods and modern commas. This article uses basic periods and commas in order to make text a little more readable but avoids more modern additions like question marks, quotation marks, and semi-colons.
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This page was last updated on August 15, 2015.