Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

经 (經) jīng

  1. jīng verb to go through / to experience
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Frequently Used Words 常用词汇
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous in this sense with 经过 jīngguò. For example, 经研究发现 'after research, discovered ...' (Gu Sou Henan, 2015-10-15) This example can be generalized to the pattern 经 (process) (state S) 'go through process P to arrive at state S.' In the example, the process is 研究 'research' and the state was that something was 发现 'discovered.' The subject is implied. The valency is three. 经 jīng also chains verbs together. Notice in the example that both arguments, 研究 'research' and 发现 'discover' are verbs. 经 jīng is the 97th most frequent word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '经'). 经 jīng is also used in this sense in classical Chinese (GHDC 2007 '经' 9; Guoyu '經' v 4). For example, 熊經鳥申 'passing their time like the (dormant) bear, and stretching and twisting (the neck) like a bird' (Zhuangzi, Ingrained Ideas 《莊子‧刻意》; Legge 1891)
  2. jīng noun a sutra / a sūtra
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: sūtra; The word 'sutra' is an English borrow word from Sanskrit. OED: 'In Sanskrit literature, a short mnemonic rule in grammar, law, or philosophy, requiring expansion by means of a commentary.' (OED Online, “Sutra, n.,” 2015) Monier Williams: “a short sentence or aphoristic rule , and any work or manual consisting of strings of such rules hanging together like threads (these sūtra works form manuals of teaching in ritual , philosophy , grammar … ) … with Buddhists , pāśupatas &c the term sūtra is applied to original text books as opp. to explanatory works” (Monier Williams, “sUtra”, 2008) Prototypical examples of Buddhist sūtras are the Diamond Sutra 金刚经 and the Lotus Sūtra 莲华经 (Guoyu '經' n 7).
  3. jīng noun warp
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: A set of lengthwise threads held in tension on a loom, as opposed to 纬 'warp' (GHDC 2007 '经' 1; Guoyu '經' n 1). For example, in the Book of Changes 《周易》: 雲,雷,屯;君子以經綸。“(The trigram representing) clouds and (that representing) thunder form Zhun. The superior man, in accordance with this, (adjusts his measures of government) as in sorting the threads of the warp and woof.” (Legge, 1899, Xiang Zhuan - Zhun)
  4. jīng noun longitude
    Domain: Geography 地理学
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 经度 jīngdù in this sense, as opposed to 纬度 wěidù 'latitude.' North-south lines on the map or on the earth (GHDC 2007 '经' 2; Guoyu '經' n 2).
  5. jīng adverb often / regularly / frequently
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as jīngcháng, 正常 zhèngcháng, 寻常 xúncháng (GHDC 2007 '经' 4; Guoyu '經' adv). For example, 若晝夜之有經 'So it is with the regular phenomena of day and night' (Zhuangzi, The Way of Heaven 《莊子‧天道》; Legge 1891)
  6. jīng verb to administer / to engage in business / to run / to operate / to manage
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 经营 jīngyíng or 治理 zhìlǐ (GHDC 2007 '经' 7; Guoyu '經' v 3).
  7. jīng noun a woman's period
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (Guoyu '經' n 9)
  8. jīng verb to bear / to endure
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 承受 or 忍受 (Guoyu '經' v 5).
  9. jīng verb to hang / to die by hanging
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 上吊 or 缢死 (GHDC 2007 '经' 10; Guoyu '經' v 6). For example, 二女皆經自殺 'The two ladies took their own lives by hanging themselves.' (Records of the Grand Historian, Annals of Zhou 《史記‧周本紀》)
  10. jīng noun classics
    Domain: Literature 文学 , Subdomain: China 中国
    Notes: One of the four traditional classifications of literary genre: 经 classics, 子 masters, 史 histories, and 集 collections (Guoyu '經' n 6; Li 2017, p. 163)
  11. jīng verb to be frugal / to save
    Domain: Economics 经济
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 节约.
  12. jīng noun a classic / a scripture / canon
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is the same as 经书 or 经典 (GHDC 2007 '经' 5). Prototypical examples are 诗经 The Book of Songs and 孝經 Xiaojing (Classic of Filial Piety). Giles: ‘The “Canon” of Confucianism. The sūtras of Buddhism and Taoism.’ (GCED '經') For example, 於是繙十二經以說 'On this he proceeded to give an abstract of the Twelve Classics to bring the other over to his views.' (Zhuangzi, The Way of Heaven 《莊子‧天道》; Legge 1891) Also, 俱誦《墨經》 'all repeated the texts of Mo' (Zhuangzi, Tian Xia 《莊子‧天下》; Legge 1891) Multi-character words related to this sense include 经训, 经术, 经传, and 经典.
  13. jīng noun a standard / a norm
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 常道 chángdào or 规范 guīfàn (GHDC 2007 '经' 3). For example, 君人者,以己出經式義度 'when rulers gave forth their regulations according to their own views and enacted righteous measures ...' (Zhuangzi, The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings 《莊子‧應帝王》; Legge 1891)
  14. jīng noun a section of a Confucian work
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (GHDC 2007 '经' 6)
  15. jīng verb to measure
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 测量 cèliáng in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 8).
  16. jīng noun human pulse
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 经脉 jīngmài in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 11).
  17. jīng noun menstruation / a woman's period
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 月经 yuèjīng in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 12).

Contained in

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Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 41
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 襄公 Lord Xiang 34
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 僖公 Lord Xi 34
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 莊公 Lord Zhang 32
Book of Han 《漢書》 卷三十 兿文志 Volume 30: Treatise on Literature 24
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 宣公 Lord Xuan 21
Records of the Three Kingdoms 《三國志》 卷四 魏書四 三少帝紀 Volume 4: Book of Wei 4 - Annals of the three young emperors 18
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 成公 Lord Cheng 18
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷六十七 列傳第二十七 謝靈運 Volume 67 Biographies 27: Xie Lingyun 18
Book of Jin 《晉書》 卷十三 志第三 天文下 Volume 13 Treatises 3: Astronomy Part Three 18

Collocations

Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
经十 經十 經十有一年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 53
经二十 經二十 經二十年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 襄公 Lord Xiang 19
经五 經五 經五年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经四 經四 經四年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经七 經七 經七年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经三 經三 經三年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经九 經九 經九年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经十年 經十年 經十年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经六 經六 經六年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经二 經二 經二年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 宣公 Lord Xuan 7