Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

经 (經) jīng

  1. jīng verb to go through / to experience
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Frequently Used Words 常用词汇
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous in this sense with 经过 jīngguò. For example, 经研究发现 'after research, discovered ...' (Gu Sou Henan, 2015-10-15) This example can be generalized to the pattern 经 (process) (state S) 'go through process P to arrive at state S.' In the example, the process is 研究 'research' and the state was that something was 发现 'discovered.' The subject is implied. The valency is three. 经 jīng also chains verbs together. Notice in the example that both arguments, 研究 'research' and 发现 'discover' are verbs. 经 jīng is the 97th most frequent word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '经'). 经 jīng is also used in this sense in classical Chinese (GHDC 2007 '经' 9; Guoyu '經' v 4). For example, 熊經鳥申 'passing their time like the (dormant) bear, and stretching and twisting (the neck) like a bird' (Zhuangzi, Ingrained Ideas 《莊子‧刻意》; Legge 1891)
  2. jīng noun a sutra / a sūtra
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: sūtra; The word 'sutra' is an English borrow word from Sanskrit. OED: 'In Sanskrit literature, a short mnemonic rule in grammar, law, or philosophy, requiring expansion by means of a commentary.' (OED Online, “Sutra, n.,” 2015) Monier Williams: “a short sentence or aphoristic rule , and any work or manual consisting of strings of such rules hanging together like threads (these sūtra works form manuals of teaching in ritual , philosophy , grammar … ) … with Buddhists , pāśupatas &c the term sūtra is applied to original text books as opp. to explanatory works” (Monier Williams, “sUtra”, 2008) Prototypical examples of Buddhist sūtras are the Diamond Sutra 金刚经 and the Lotus Sūtra 莲华经 (Guoyu '經' n 7).
  3. jīng noun warp
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: A set of lengthwise threads held in tension on a loom, as opposed to 纬 'warp' (GHDC 2007 '经' 1; Guoyu '經' n 1). For example, in the Book of Changes 《周易》: 雲,雷,屯;君子以經綸。“(The trigram representing) clouds and (that representing) thunder form Zhun. The superior man, in accordance with this, (adjusts his measures of government) as in sorting the threads of the warp and woof.” (Legge, 1899, Xiang Zhuan - Zhun)
  4. jīng noun longitude
    Domain: Geography 地理学
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 经度 jīngdù in this sense, as opposed to 纬度 wěidù 'latitude.' North-south lines on the map or on the earth (GHDC 2007 '经' 2; Guoyu '經' n 2).
  5. jīng adverb often / regularly / frequently
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as jīngcháng, 正常 zhèngcháng, 寻常 xúncháng (GHDC 2007 '经' 4; Guoyu '經' adv). For example, 若晝夜之有經 'So it is with the regular phenomena of day and night' (Zhuangzi, The Way of Heaven 《莊子‧天道》; Legge 1891)
  6. jīng verb to administer / to engage in business / to run / to operate / to manage
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 经营 jīngyíng or 治理 zhìlǐ (GHDC 2007 '经' 7; Guoyu '經' v 3).
  7. jīng noun a woman's period
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (Guoyu '經' n 9)
  8. jīng verb to bear / to endure
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 承受 or 忍受 (Guoyu '經' v 5).
  9. jīng verb to hang / to die by hanging
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 上吊 or 缢死 (GHDC 2007 '经' 10; Guoyu '經' v 6). For example, 二女皆經自殺 'The two ladies took their own lives by hanging themselves.' (Records of the Grand Historian, Annals of Zhou 《史記‧周本紀》)
  10. jīng noun classics
    Domain: Literature 文学 , Subdomain: China 中国
    Notes: One of the four traditional classifications of literary genre: 经 classics, 子 masters, 史 histories, and 集 collections (Guoyu '經' n 6; Li 2017, p. 163)
  11. jīng verb to be frugal / to save
    Domain: Economics 经济
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 节约.
  12. jīng noun a classic / a scripture / canon
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is the same as 经书 or 经典 (GHDC 2007 '经' 5). Prototypical examples are 诗经 The Book of Songs and 孝經 Xiaojing (Classic of Filial Piety). Giles: ‘The “Canon” of Confucianism. The sūtras of Buddhism and Taoism.’ (GCED '經') For example, 於是繙十二經以說 'On this he proceeded to give an abstract of the Twelve Classics to bring the other over to his views.' (Zhuangzi, The Way of Heaven 《莊子‧天道》; Legge 1891) Also, 俱誦《墨經》 'all repeated the texts of Mo' (Zhuangzi, Tian Xia 《莊子‧天下》; Legge 1891) Multi-character words related to this sense include 经训, 经术, 经传, and 经典.
  13. jīng noun a standard / a norm
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 经 is has the same meaning as 常道 chángdào or 规范 guīfàn (GHDC 2007 '经' 3). For example, 君人者,以己出經式義度 'when rulers gave forth their regulations according to their own views and enacted righteous measures ...' (Zhuangzi, The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings 《莊子‧應帝王》; Legge 1891)
  14. jīng noun a section of a Confucian work
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (GHDC 2007 '经' 6)
  15. jīng verb to measure
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 测量 cèliáng in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 8).
  16. jīng noun human pulse
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 经脉 jīngmài in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 11).
  17. jīng noun menstruation / a woman's period
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: 经 jīng is synonymous with 月经 yuèjīng in this sense (GHDC 2007 '经' 12).

Contained in

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Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
History of Song 《宋史》 卷二百〇六 志第一百五十九 藝文五 Volume 206 Treatises 159: Arts and Literature 5 208
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷34 志第29 經籍三 Volume 34 Treatises 29: Bibliography 3 171
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷五十九    志第四十九  藝文三 Volume 59 Treatises 55: The Arts 3 159
History of Song 《宋史》 卷二百〇七 志第一百六十 藝文六 Volume 207 Treatises 160: Arts and Literature 6 137
History of Song 《宋史》 卷二百〇五 志第一百五十八 藝文四 Volume 205 Treatises 158: Arts and Literature 4 94
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷四十七 志第二十七: 經籍下 Volume 47 Treatises 27: Literature 2 78
History of Jin 《金史》 卷五十一 志第三十二: 選舉一 進士諸科律科 經童科 制舉 武舉 試學士院官 司天、醫學試科 Volume 51 Treatises 32: Selection of Officials 1 - Jinshi in all Subjects and Legal Articles; Children Passing Examinations; Processes for Selecting Talented People; Successful Candidates in the Military Examinations; Institutions Administering Examinations; Astronomy Bureau; Examinations for Medicine 72
History of Song 《宋史》 卷一百五十五 志第一百〇八 選舉一 Volume 155 Treatises 108: Selection and appointment of Officials 1 62
History of Song 《宋史》 卷一百五十七 志第一百一十 選舉三 Volume 157 Treatises 110: Selection and appointment of Officials 3 56
History of Ming 《明史》 卷四十三 志第十九 地理四 Volume 43 Treatises 19: Geography 4 52

Collocations

Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
经十 經十 經十有一年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 53
经二十 經二十 經二十年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 襄公 Lord Xiang 19
经五 經五 經五年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经七 經七 經七年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经四 經四 經四年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 8
经二 經二 經二年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 宣公 Lord Xuan 7
经三 經三 經三年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经八 經八 經八年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经九 經九 經九年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7
经十年 經十年 經十年 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 文公 Lord Wen 7