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Chinese Text Pinyin English Notes
{{word.text}} {{word.text}} {{word.pinyin}} {{word.english}} {{word.notes | limitTo: 100}} ... details All {{word.count}} word senses

  1. adverb naturally / of course / certainly
    Domain: Characteristic 特点
    Notes: In the sense of 自然 (CCD 1 '自' 1; GHDC '自' 4)
  2. preposition from / since
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In the sense of 从 (CCD 2 '自'; GHDC '自' 5)
  3. pronoun oneself / itself
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 自 means 自己. In Literary Chinese this relfexive personal pronoun always occurs in front of a verb (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 83). For example, 所謂誠其意者,毋自欺也 What is meant by 'making the thoughts sincere.' is the allowing no self-deception.' (The Classic of Rites, The Great Learning《禮記‧大學》, trans. by Legge 1885; CCD 1 '自' 2; GHDC '自' 1)
  4. noun Kangxi radical 132
    Domain: Radicals 部首
    Notes: (ABC back cover; GHC p. 7)
  5. verb to come from / to follow
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  6. noun a nose
    Domain: Health 健康
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 鼻子.
  7. noun the beginning
    Domain: Process 过程
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 开头 (GHDC '自' 2).
  8. noun origin
    Domain: Process 过程
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 起源 (GHDC '自' 3).
  9. adverb originally
    Domain: Process 过程
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 本来.
  10. adverb still / to remain
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Condition 状况
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 仍旧 or 依然 (GHDC '自' 9).
  11. adverb in person / personally
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Condition 状况
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 亲自.
  12. adverb in addition /besides
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 别自 or 另外.
  13. conjunction if / even if
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 假如 (GHDC '自' 8).
  14. conjunction but
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 可是.
  15. conjunction because
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 因为 and 由于 (GHDC '自' 6).
  16. verb to employ / to use
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 用 (GHDC '自' 7).
  17. verb to be
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: Synonym discussion: in this sense 自 has the same meaning as 是.

Contained in

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Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

CollectionDocument TitleOccurrences
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《中庸章句》 Commentary on Doctrine of the Mean 42
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《公孫丑章句上》 Commentary on Gong Sun Chou I 41
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《秦始皇本紀》 Annals of Qin Shi Huang 37
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《龜策列傳》 Biographies of Diviners 36
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《封禪書》 Religious sacrificial ceremonies 36
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《匈奴列傳》 Treatise on the Xiongnu 32
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《大學章句》 Commentary on Great Learning 32
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《離婁章句上》 Commentary on Li Lou I 30
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《滕文公章句上》 Commentary on Teng Wen Gong I 29
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《高祖本紀》 Annals of Gao Zu 28

Usage

Sampled for common words

ExampleSourceOccurrences
遠方 1. 《學而》 Xue Er in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
3. 《八佾》 Ba Yi in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
5. 《公冶長》Gong Ye Chang in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
6. 《雍也》 Yong Ye in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
12. 《顏淵》 Yan Yuan in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
禽獸 《曲禮上》 Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 1 in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 6
以下 《曲禮下》 Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 2 in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 2
周公以來 《檀弓上》 Tan Gong I in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 9
《檀弓下》 Tan Gong II in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 6
天子 《王制》 Royal Regulations in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 9
不能 《內篇‧逍遙遊》 Inner Chapters - Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 1
使 《齊物論》 The Adjustment of Controversies in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 10
《人間世》 Man in the World, Associated with other Men in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 6
《德充符》 The Seal of Virtue Complete in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 6
《大宗師》 The Great and Most Honoured Master in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 5
Sections from Records of the Historian in Selections of Literary Chinese Prose 5
《釋詁》 Explanation of Old Words in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
《釋訓》 Explanation of Instructions in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
《釋水》 Explanation of Water in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
《釋木》 Explanation of Trees in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
不得在位 《本紀‧五帝本紀》 Annals - Annals of the Five Emperors in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 6
冀州 《夏本紀》 Annals of Xia in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 6
《殷本紀》 Annals of Yin in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 9
《周本紀》 Annals of Zhou in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 18
以下 《秦本紀》 Annals of Qin in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 15