Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes


  1. diǎn noun canon / classic / scripture
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: Middle Chinese: tenX;as in 典籍 (Kroll '典' 1; GHC '典' 1) In Shuo Wen, 典,經也。‘diǎn means the same as jīng.’ ('Er Ya, Shi Yan'《爾雅‧釋言》, 1739) For example, 修其訓典 'cultivated in teaching the classics.' (Records of the Grand Historian, Annals of Zhou 《史記‧周本紀》) Also, 冬讀書,典書者詔之。 'In winter they read the book of History, being instructed by the guardians of it.' (The Classic of Rites, King Wen as Son and Heir 《禮記‧文王世子》)
  2. diǎn noun laws / regulations
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 法则 or 制度 (Kroll '典' 2; NCCED '典' 2-3; GHC '典' 2) For example, 乃命大史守典奉法 'He also orders the Grand recorder to guard the statutes and maintain the laws ...' (The Classic of Rites, Proceedings of Government in the Different Months 《禮記‧月令》)
  3. diǎn noun a ceremony
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 典礼 (NCCED '典' 4; GHC '典' 5)
  4. diǎn noun an institution in imperial China
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 典章 (GHC '典' 3)
  5. diǎn adjective refined / elegant
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 典雅 (GHC '典' 4)
  6. diǎn verb to administer
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 掌管 (GHC '典' 6; NCCED '典' 6; Kroll '典' 4)
  7. diǎn verb to pawn
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: As in 典当 or 抵押 (GHC '典' 7; Kroll '典' 5)
  8. diǎn noun an allusion / a precedent
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Kroll '典' 3; NCCED '典' 5)

Contained in


Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Old Book of Tang 《舊唐書》 卷四十四 志第二十四: 職官三 Volume 44 Treatises 24: Government Service 3 129
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷八十三 志第三十三:  選舉三 Volume 83 Treatises 36: Selection of Officials 3 105
History of Ming 《明史》 卷七十四 志第五十 職官三 Volume 74 Treatises 50: Official Posts 3 92
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷四十八    志第三十八  百官三 Volume 48 Treatises 43: Official Posts 3 70
History of Jin 《金史》 卷五十七 志第三十八: 百官三 內命婦 宮人女職 東宮官屬 親王府屬 太后兩宮官屬 大興府 諸京留守司諸京城宮苑提舉等職 按察司 諸路總管府、諸府、諸節鎮、防禦、刺史、縣鎮等職 諸轉運泉谷等職 諸府鎮兵馬等職 諸猛安部族及群牧等職 Volume 57 Treatises 38: Official Posts 3 - Women of the Inner Court; Palace Women with Official Positions; East Palace officials; Prince's Residence Subordinates; Officials of the Empress Dowager's Two Palaces; Daxing Prefecture; Officials in Charge of Offices, Palaces, and Parks in the Capital; Surveillance Commissions; Circuit Inspectors; Prefecture Governments; Town Administration; Defenses; Magistrates; County and Town Officials; Transportation and Grain Officials; Officials in Charge of Military Forces in the Prefectures; Officals in Charge of Pacifying Savage Tribes and Pastoral Peoples 65
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷四十七    志第三十七  百官二 Volume 47 Treatises 42: Official Posts 2 55
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷八十九 志第三十九:  百官五 Volume 89 Treatises 42: Official Posts 5 54
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷28 志第23 百官下 Volume 28 Treatises 23: Government Offices 3 50
History of Ming 《明史》 卷七十五 志第五十一 職官四 Volume 75 Treatises 51: Official Posts 4 46
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷八十八 志第三十八:  百官四 Volume 88 Treatises 41: Official Posts 4 43


Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
五典 五典 慎徽五典 Book of Documents 《尚書》 虞書 舜典 Yu Shu - Canon of Shun 11
典刑 典刑 尚有典刑 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 大雅‧蕩之什‧蕩 Greater odes of the kingdom - Decade Of Dang - Dang 7
典司 典司 先君桓公命我先人典司宗祏 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 莊公 Lord Zhang 4
典法 典法 則又有符節印璽典法筴籍以相揆也 Guanzi 《管子》 君臣上第三十 Chapter 30: A Ruler and his Ministers I 4
典冠 典冠 典冠者見君之寒也 Han Feizi 《韓非子》 二柄第七 Chapter 7: Two Handles 4
典制 典製 典制六材 The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《曲禮下》 Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 2 3
终始典 終始典 念終始典于學 Book of Documents 《尚書》 商書 說命下(僞) Shang Shu - Charge to Yue III (forged) 3
罪典 罪典 君因兼罪典衣與典冠 Han Feizi 《韓非子》 二柄第七 Chapter 7: Two Handles 3
典命 典命 典命 Rites of Zhou 《周禮》 春官宗伯 第三 3. Office of Spring and Minister of Rites 3
典乐 典樂 命汝典樂 Book of Documents 《尚書》 虞書 舜典 Yu Shu - Canon of Shun 3