Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

le liǎo

  1. le particle completion of an action
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Aspectual Particle 动态助词
    Notes: In this usage 了 is an aspectual particle 动态助词. Here 了 is placed after the verb and before its object to indicate that an action has been completed (Li Shaoqi, 2003, pp. 430-431; Ho, 2002, '了' 1). For example, 他似乎明白了点 'he seemed to understand something.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 218) In this example the verb is 明白 'understand' and the object is 点 '[a little] something.' 了 cannot be used for non-action verbs, such as 喜欢, 是, 像. If there are two verbs in series then 了 should be placed after the second verb. 了 is the third most frequent word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '了').
  2. liǎo verb to know / to understand
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Thought 思想
    Notes: Frequently used as a potential complement.
  3. le particle modal particle
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Modal Particle 语气助词
    Notes: In this use 了 appears at the end of a sentence as a modal particle 语气助词. Use as a modal particle differs from use as an aspectual particle after a verb in that a modal particle indicates the completion of the action for the whole sentence. Sometimes a modal particle is omitted if the sentence contains an aspectual particle and the action of the sentence is simple. There are two common uses: 1. 了 may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a newly emerged condition (Ho, 2002, '了' 2; Sun 2006, loc. 885). For example, 一切的路都封上了 'All the roads were closed.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 175) 2. 了 may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a reminder, advice, or urging.
  4. le particle particle used in certain fixed expressions
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Particle 助词
    Notes: In this use 了 is used in a set of fixed expressions, including 太...了, ...极了, 对了, and 好了 (Ho, 2002, '了' 3; Li Shaoqi, 2003, p. 433). For example, 你帮几天忙好了 'Please help for a few days.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 176)

Contained in

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Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

Collection Document Title Occurrences
An Introduction to Chinese Grammar 汉语语法入门 句子成分 Sentence Elements 26
An Introduction to Chinese Grammar 汉语语法入门 目录导言 Contents and Introduction 17
An Introduction to Chinese Grammar 汉语语法入门 动作的状态 Aspects of an Action 16
The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧衞‧氓 Lessons from the states - Odes of Wei - Mang 14
A small number of phrases from the writings of Lao She Luotuo Xiangzi 《骆驼祥子》 13
An Introduction to Chinese Grammar 汉语语法入门 用特殊动词谓语的句子 Sentences using Special Verbal Predicates 11
A small number of phrases from the writings of Lao She Teahouse - Act II (Part) 《茶馆》 第二幕 (部分) 7
Media articles 红色清真寺 The Red Mosque - Fragment c (2007-7-5) 7
Media articles 猴年 Year of the Monkey - Fragment d (2016-01-30) 7
Media articles 中国美术馆 China National Art Gallery - Fragment b (2015-12-25) 6