Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

le liǎo

  1. le particle completion of an action
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Aspectual Particle 动态助词
    Notes: In this usage 了 is an aspectual particle 动态助词. Here 了 is placed after the verb and before its object to indicate that an action has been completed (Li Shaoqi, 2003, pp. 430-431; Ho, 2002, '了' 1). For example, 他似乎明白了点 'he seemed to understand something.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 218) In this example the verb is 明白 'understand' and the object is 点 '[a little] something.' 了 cannot be used for non-action verbs, such as 喜欢, 是, 像. If there are two verbs in series then 了 should be placed after the second verb. 了 is the third most frequent word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '了').
  2. liǎo verb to know / to understand
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Thought 思想
    Notes: Frequently used as a potential complement.
  3. liǎo adjective clear
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
  4. liǎo verb to look afar from a high place
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
  5. le particle modal particle
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Modal Particle 语气助词
    Notes: In this use 了 appears at the end of a sentence as a modal particle 语气助词. Use as a modal particle differs from use as an aspectual particle after a verb in that a modal particle indicates the completion of the action for the whole sentence. Sometimes a modal particle is omitted if the sentence contains an aspectual particle and the action of the sentence is simple. There are two common uses: 1. 了 may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a newly emerged condition (Ho, 2002, '了' 2; Sun 2006, loc. 885). For example, 一切的路都封上了 'All the roads were closed.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 175) 2. 了 may be used at the end of a sentence to indicate a reminder, advice, or urging.
  6. le particle particle used in certain fixed expressions
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Particle 助词
    Notes: In this use 了 is used in a set of fixed expressions, including 太...了, ...极了, 对了, and 好了 (Ho, 2002, '了' 3; Li Shaoqi, 2003, p. 433). For example, 你帮几天忙好了 'Please help for a few days.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 176)

Contained in


Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第三回 Chapter 3 221
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第二十三回 Chapter 23 159
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第三十三回 Chapter 33 159
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第五回 Chapter 5 159
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第十六回 Chapter 16 155
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第三十八回 Chapter 38 153
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第五十四回 Chapter 54 153
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第二十一回 Chapter 21 150
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第四十回 Chapter 40 149
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第五十一回 Chapter 51 148