Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. adverb already / since
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Time 时间
    Notes: (Unihan '既')
  2. conjunction both ... and ...
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: This form is used both in modern and literary Chinese (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 113).
  3. verb to complete / to finish
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In this sense 既 is a full verb (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 113).
  4. particle preverbal particle marking completion
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese 既 is placed before a verb to indicate a change in state completion. The verb is often followed by the particle 矣 (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 113). For example, 然則夫子既聖矣乎? 'Then, Master, have you attained to be a Sage?' (Mengzi: 3.2/16/14, translation by Legge)

Contained in


Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 52
History of Song 《宋史》 卷一百三十四 志第八十七 樂九 Volume 134 Treatises 87: Music 9 51
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷二十 志第十 樂二 Volume 20 Treatises 10: Music 2 49
History of Ming 《明史》 卷六十二 志第三十八 樂二 Volume 62 Treatises 38: Music 2 48
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷十五 志第五 禮二 Volume 15 Treatises 5: Rituals 2 45
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷六十七 列傳第二十七 謝靈運 Volume 67 Biographies 27: Xie Lingyun 44
Book of Jin 《晉書》 卷七十五 列傳第四十五 王湛 荀崧 范汪 劉惔 張憑 韓伯 Volume 75 Biographies 45: Wang Zhan; Xun Song; Fan Wang; Liu Tan 41
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷十六 志第六 禮三 Volume 16 Treatises 6: Rituals 3 39
Book of Jin 《晉書》 卷九十八 列傳第六十八 王敦 桓溫 Volume 98 Biographies 68: Wang Dun; Huan Wen 39
History of Song 《宋史》 卷五十二 志第五 天文五 Volume 52 Treatises 5: Astronomy 5 39