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Chinese Text Pinyin English Notes
{{word.text}} {{word.text}} {{word.pinyin}} {{word.english}} {{word.notes | limitTo: 100}} ... details All {{word.count}} word senses

shì

  1. shì verb is / are / am / to be
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 是 is used in this sense as a copular verb used between two nouns or noun phrases to indicate equality (Ho, 2002, '是' 1; NCCED '是' 2). Use in this form is not common in literary Chinese but was used as early as the Han, (Norman 1988, p. 125) notably in translation of Buddhist texts (Kroll '是' 4). 是 is the fourth most frequently used word in the Beijing Language Institute's 1985 frequency wordlist (Ho, 2002, '是').
  2. shì verb is exactly
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: To connect two words with identical meaning
  3. shì verb is suitable / is in contrast / used for emphasis
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 是 is used in this sense in front of a noun to emphasize its suitability or contrast (NCCED '是' 4).
  4. shì pronoun this / that / those
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In literary Chinese 是 most often functions as an anaphoric (referring to something previously mentioned) demonstrative pronoun (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 85; NCCED '是' 1; Kroll '是' 1). 是 is also used as an indefinite demonstrative pronoun in literary Chinese (Kroll '是' 2).
  5. shì adverb really / certainly
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this sense, 是 is used in front of a verb or adjective to emphasize it (NCCED '是' 6). For example, 特别是在大家面前 'especially in front of everybody.'(Lao She, 2003, p. 176)
  6. shì adjective correct / affirmative
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this sense, 是 is used as an alternative in a question or as the affirmative answer to a question. 是 is used in this sense in both modern and literary Chinese (NCCED '是' 8; Kroll '是' 3).
  7. shì verb to exist
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 是 is used in this sense rather than 有 in some cases for a specific condition (Ho, 2002, '是' 2).
  8. shì verb used between repetitions of a word
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 是 is used in this form to indicate a distinction of some kind (NCCED '是' 3). For example, 从此她是她,我是我,再也不吵嘴 'From now on, she will be who she is and I will be who I am but we will not quarrel again.' (Lao She, 2003, p. 205)

Contained in

但是还是实事求是是否可是乃是就是尤其是不是如是于是要是总是不是吗倒是老是有的是只是不是_而是_不是_就是_凡是就是说就是_也_可不是是的是非算是要不是真是或是似是而非真是的头头是道自以为是而是为的是应是若是两个凡是那空叻差是玛十如是是故正是是不是观受是苦如是我闻以是既是是以金刚经如是解便是

Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

CollectionDocument TitleOccurrences
The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《月令》 Proceedings of Government in the Different Months 61
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《楚世家》 House of Chu 48
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《公孫丑章句上》 Commentary on Gong Sun Chou I 46
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《晉世家》 House of Jin 46
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《周本紀》 Annals of Zhou 43
Zhuangzi 《莊子》 《齊物論》 The Adjustment of Controversies 41
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《盡心章句上》 Commentary on Jin Xin I 41
Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《魯周公世家》 House of Lu Zhougong 41
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《告子章句上》 Commentary on Gaozi I 40
Commentaries on the Four Books by Zhu Xi 朱熹《四書章句集注》 《中庸章句》 Commentary on Doctrine of the Mean 38

Usage

Sampled for common words

ExampleSourceOccurrences
夫子至於 1. 《學而》 Xue Er in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 1
2. 《為政》 Wei Zheng in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 3
3. 《八佾》 Ba Yi in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 2
4. 《里仁》 Li Ren in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 2
5. 《公冶長》Gong Ye Chang in The Analects of Confucius 《論語》 2
《曲禮下》 Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 2 in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 1
《檀弓上》 Tan Gong I in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 9
《檀弓下》 Tan Gong II in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 9
《月令》 Proceedings of Government in the Different Months in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 61
《曾子問》 The Questions of Zeng-zi in The Book of Rites 《禮記》 5
《內篇‧逍遙遊》 Inner Chapters - Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 4
《齊物論》 The Adjustment of Controversies in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 41
《養生主》 Nourishing the Lord of Life in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 4
以下 《人間世》 Man in the World, Associated with other Men in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 14
《德充符》 The Seal of Virtue Complete in Zhuangzi 《莊子》 9
Selections from Stories by Liu Xiang in Selections of Literary Chinese Prose 1
不用 Selections from Mencius in Selections of Literary Chinese Prose 4
《釋詁》 Explanation of Old Words in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
《釋言》 Explanation of Words in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
《釋訓》 Explanation of Instructions in Er Ya 《爾雅》 3
《釋天》 Explanation of Heaven in Er Ya 《爾雅》 2
西 《釋地》 Explanation of Earth in Er Ya 《爾雅》 1
黃帝 《本紀‧五帝本紀》 Annals - Annals of the Five Emperors in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 10
天下 《夏本紀》 Annals of Xia in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 10
成湯 《殷本紀》 Annals of Yin in Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 25