Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. adjective bitter
    Domain: Food and Drink 饮食 , Concept: Flavor 味道
    Notes: (Unihan '苦')
  2. noun hardship / suffering
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Emotion 感情
    Notes: (Unihan '苦')
  3. verb to grieve bitterly
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  4. noun Sorrow / duḥkha / dukkha / suffering
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: duḥkha, Pāli: dukkha, Japanese: ku. Duḥkha is the unsatisfactory nature inherent in all conditioned phenomena. 苦諦 'The truth of suffering' is the first of the 四聖諦 'four noble truths,' a fundamental teaching of Buddhism (BL 'duḥkha; FGDB '苦').; FGS translation standard: Sorrow

Contained in


Word is mentioned most frequently in

Truncated for common words

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Classic of Tea 《茶經》 卷下:五之煮、六之飲、七之事、八之出、九之略、十之圖 Final Scroll: 5. Boiling, 6. Drinking, 7. History, 8. Growing Regions, 9. Simplify, 10. Pictorialize 20
Daode Jing 《道德經》 With commentary by 王弼 Wang Bi 11
Book of Later Han 《後漢書》 卷五十九 張衡列傳 Volume 59: Biography of Zhang Heng 8
Book of Later Han 《後漢書》 卷四十九 王充王符仲長統列傳 Volume 49: Biographies of Wang Chong, Wang Fu, Zhongchang Tong 8
Records of the Three Kingdoms 《三國志》 卷二十九 魏書二十九 方技傳 Volume 29: Book of Wei 29 - Biographies of fangshis and artisans 7
Book of Han 《漢書》 卷九十四上 匈奴傳 Volume 94a: Traditions of the Xiongnu 1 7
Records of the Three Kingdoms 《三國志》 卷六十五 吳書二十 王樓賀韋華傳 Volume 65: Book of Wu 20 - Biographies of Wang, Lou, He, Wei, and Hua 7
Shuo Wen Jie Zi 《說文解字》 《艸部》 Cǎo Radical 7
Songs of Chu 《楚辭》 卷第十三 七諫 Chapter 13: Seven Remonstrances 7
Book of Jin 《晉書》 卷九十五 列傳第六十五 藝術 Volume 95 Biographies 65: Arts 6


Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
民苦 民苦 故民苦於外 Mozi 《墨子》 卷一 七患 Book 1 - The Seven Worries 7
功苦 功苦 辨功苦 Guanzi 《管子》 立政第四 Chapter 4: Establishing Governance 5
苦叶 苦葉 匏有苦葉 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧邶‧匏有苦葉 Lessons from the states - Odes of Bei - Pao You Ku Ye 5
苦雨 苦雨 秋無苦雨 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 5
味苦 味苦 其味苦 The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《月令》 Proceedings of Government in the Different Months 5
苦节 苦節 苦節不可貞 Book of Changes 《易經》 節 Jie 4
苦窳 苦窳 東夷之陶者器苦窳 Han Feizi 《韓非子》 難一第三十六 Chapter 36: Difficulties I 4
苦身 苦身 苦身勞形 Huainanzi 《淮南子》 卷十九 脩務訓 Chapter 19: Cultivation of Effort 3
用力苦 用力苦 用力苦則勞 Guanzi 《管子》 版法第七 Chapter 7: Ban Fa 3
百姓苦 百姓苦 百姓苦之 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧齊‧盧令 Lessons from the states - Odes of Qi - Lu Ling 3