Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. adjective bitter
    Domain: Food and Drink 饮食 , Concept: Flavor 味道
    Notes: (Unihan '苦')
  2. noun hardship / suffering
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Emotion 感情
    Notes: (Unihan '苦')
  3. verb to grieve bitterly
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
  4. noun Sorrow / duḥkha / dukkha / suffering
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: duḥkha, Pāli: dukkha, Japanese: ku. Duḥkha is the unsatisfactory nature inherent in all conditioned phenomena. 苦諦 'The truth of suffering' is the first of the 四聖諦 'four noble truths,' a fundamental teaching of Buddhism (BL 'duḥkha; FGDB '苦').; FGS translation standard: Sorrow

Contained in


Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
The Classic of Tea 《茶經》 卷下:五之煮、六之飲、七之事、八之出、九之略、十之圖 Final Scroll: 5. Boiling, 6. Drinking, 7. History, 8. Growing Regions, 9. Simplify, 10. Pictorialize 20
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十八 Scroll 28 18
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷六十七 列傳第二十七 謝靈運 Volume 67 Biographies 27: Xie Lingyun 16
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷三十 Scroll 30 13
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十四 Scroll 24 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷十八 Scroll 18 12
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷二十一 志第十一 樂三 Volume 21 Treatises 11: Music 3 12
History of Ming 《明史》 卷三百三十 列傳第二百十八 西域二 Volume 330 Biographies 218: Western Regions 2 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷六十 Scroll 60 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十 Scroll 20 11


Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
民苦 民苦 故民苦於外 Mozi 《墨子》 卷一 七患 Book 1 - The Seven Worries 7
苦雨 苦雨 秋無苦雨 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 5
味苦 味苦 其味苦 The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《月令》 Proceedings of Government in the Different Months 5
苦叶 苦葉 匏有苦葉 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧邶‧匏有苦葉 Lessons from the states - Odes of Bei - Pao You Ku Ye 5
功苦 功苦 辨功苦 Guanzi 《管子》 立政第四 Chapter 4: Establishing Governance 5
苦窳 苦窳 東夷之陶者器苦窳 Han Feizi 《韓非子》 難一第三十六 Chapter 36: Difficulties I 4
苦节 苦節 苦節不可貞 Book of Changes 《易經》 節 Jie 4
苦成 苦成 衛侯饗苦成叔 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 成公 Lord Cheng 3
苦身 苦身 苦身勞形 Huainanzi 《淮南子》 卷十九 脩務訓 Chapter 19: Cultivation of Effort 3
用力苦 用力苦 用力苦則勞 Guanzi 《管子》 版法第七 Chapter 7: Ban Fa 3