Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

  1. noun bitterness / bitter flavor
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Food and Drink 饮食 , Concept: Flavor 味道
    Notes: One of the 五味 'five flavors', the opposite of 甜 'sweetness' (Guoyu '苦' n 1)
  2. noun hardship / suffering
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Emotion 感情
    Notes: For example, the idiom 苦中作乐 'to enjoy in spite of hardship' (Guoyu '苦' n 2; Unihan '苦')
  3. verb to make things difficult for
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 受累 or 为难 (Guoyu '苦' v 1)
  4. noun Sorrow / duḥkha / dukkha / suffering
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: duḥkha, Pāli: dukkha, Japanese: ku. Duḥkha is the unsatisfactory nature inherent in all conditioned phenomena. 苦諦 'The truth of suffering' is the first of the 四聖諦 'four noble truths,' a fundamental teaching of Buddhism (BL 'duḥkha; FGDB '苦').; FGS translation standard: Sorrow
  5. verb to train / to practice
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 磨鍊 (Guoyu '苦' v 2)
  6. verb to suffer from a misfortune
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 患 (Guoyu '苦' v 3)
  7. adjective bitter
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Food and Drink 饮食
    Notes: (Guoyu '苦' adj 1; Unihan '苦')
  8. adjective grieved / facing hardship
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 艰辛; for example, 苦日子 'hard times' (Guoyu '苦' adj 2)
  9. adjective in low spirits / depressed
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 愁闷; for example, 愁眉苦脸 'to look anxious' (Guoyu '苦' adj 3)
  10. adverb assiduously / to do one's best / to strive as much as possible
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 尽力 (Guoyu '苦' adv; Han Dian '苦' adj 7)
  11. adjective painful
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 痛 (Han Dian '苦' adj 4)

Contained in

贫苦苦恼苦难苦集灭道刻苦辛苦艰苦痛苦吃苦苦命困苦穷苦苦海苦行苦力八苦苦行人苦行者受苦苦厄苦寒苦修苦行僧能灭诸苦救度病苦忧苦观受是苦生苦老苦死苦爱别离苦怨憎会苦求不得苦五蕴炽盛苦苦毒苦楚罪苦叫苦愁苦精苦文化苦旅千辛万苦苦叉苦圣谛苦谛苦习圣谛苦集谛苦灭谛苦尽谛苦灭圣谛爱灭苦灭圣谛

Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十八 Scroll 28 18
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷六十七 列傳第二十七 謝靈運 Volume 67 Biographies 27: Xie Lingyun 16
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷三十 Scroll 30 13
History of Ming 《明史》 卷三百三十 列傳第二百十八 西域二 Volume 330 Biographies 218: Western Regions 2 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷十八 Scroll 18 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷六十 Scroll 60 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十四 Scroll 24 12
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷二十一 志第十一 樂三 Volume 21 Treatises 11: Music 3 12
The Family Instructions of Master Yan 《顏氏家訓》 卷第六 書證 Scroll 6: Writing 11
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十 Scroll 20 11

Collocations

Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
民苦 民苦 故民苦於外 Mozi 《墨子》 卷一 七患 Book 1 - The Seven Worries 6
味苦 味苦 其味苦 The Book of Rites 《禮記》 《月令》 Proceedings of Government in the Different Months 5
苦叶 苦葉 匏有苦葉 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧邶‧匏有苦葉 Lessons from the states - Odes of Bei - Pao You Ku Ye 5
功苦 功苦 辨功苦 Guanzi 《管子》 立政第四 Chapter 4: Establishing Governance 5
苦雨 苦雨 秋無苦雨 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 昭公 Lord Zhao 5
苦节 苦節 苦節不可貞 Book of Changes 《易經》 節 Jie 4
苦成 苦成 衛侯饗苦成叔 The Commentary of Zuo on the Spring and Autumn Annals 《春秋左氏傳》 成公 Lord Cheng 3
百姓苦 百姓苦 百姓苦之 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧齊‧盧令 Lessons from the states - Odes of Qi - Lu Ling 3
用力苦 用力苦 用力苦則勞 Guanzi 《管子》 版法第七 Chapter 7: Ban Fa 3
苦窳 苦窳 東夷之陶者器苦窳 Han Feizi 《韓非子》 難一第三十六 Chapter 36: Difficulties I 3