独 (獨)

  1. adjective alone / independent / single / sole
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: 独 is used in this sense as an adjective and as an adverb in Literary Chinese (Guoyu '獨' adj; Kroll 2015 '獨' 1; NCCED '独' 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 133; Unihan '獨'). For example, 孟子獨不與驩言 'There is only Mencius who does not speak to me ...' (Mengzi: 8.27/43/27, translation by Legge)
  2. adverb to be independent
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 专断 (Guoyu '獨' adv 4; Kroll 2015 '獨' 3; NCCED '独' 3)
  3. noun an elderly person without children
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Guoyu '獨' n; Kroll 2015 '獨' 1b; NCCED '独' 2)
  4. adverb only
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 只 (Guoyu '獨' adv 1; Kroll 2015 '獨' 4; NCCED '独' 4)
  5. adverb uniquely
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Kroll 2015 '獨' 2; NCCED '独' 5)
  6. adjective intolerant
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (NCCED '独' 6)
  7. adverb lonely
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Kroll 2015 '獨' 1a)
  8. adverb yet / still
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 偏偏 (Guoyu '獨' adv 2; Kroll 2015 '獨' 5)
  9. adverb especially
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Kroll 2015 '獨' 6)
  10. particle particle suggesting disbelief
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Kroll 2015 '獨' 7)
  11. noun doucs / douc langurs
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: A kind of old world monkey in the genus Pygathrix (Kroll 2015 '獨' 8)

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