Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

de dé děi

  1. de particle potential marker
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Structural Particle 结构助词
    Notes: In this use, 得 is a sentence particle used after a verb to show possibility. 得 must be placed after a verb or adjective and before a complement of degree (ABC 'de' 得 sp; Kroll '得' 3; NCCED de '得' 1).
  2. verb to obtain / to get / to gain / to attain / to win
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Actions 行为
    Notes: The verb 得 may be used before a noun or pronoun or with a following verb. 得 is used in this sense in both literary and modern Chinese (ABC 'dé' 得 v 1; GCED '得'; Kroll '得' 1; NCCED dé '得' 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 122). For example, in literary Chinese, 是故君子有大道,必忠信以得之 'Thus we see that the sovereign [junzi] has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it.' (Book of Rites, Great Learning 《禮記‧大學》, trans. by Legge 1885)
  3. děi adverb must / ought to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: (ABC 'děi' 得 aux; NCCED děi '得' 2)
  4. děi verb to want to / to need to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: (ABC 'děi' 得 v 1; NCCED děi '得' 1)
  5. děi auxiliary verb must / ought to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this sense, 得 is an auxiliary verb expressing obligation. The negative form is 不用 or 不要. It began to be used in this sense from the Tang (ABC 'děi' 得 v 2; NCCED děi '得' 3; Norman 1988, p. 125).
  6. foreign de
    Domain: Foreign Language 外语
    Notes: Used to transliterate foreign names
  7. de infix infix potential marker
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: 得 is one of the two infixes in Chinese, the other being 不 'not'. For example, 看得见 'can see' and 找得到 'can find' (ABC 'de' 得 infix; Kroll '得' 2; NCCED de '得' 2; Sun 2006, loc. 728).
  8. verb to result in
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Actions 行为
    Notes: (ABC 'dé' 得 v 2; NCCED dé '得' 9)
  9. verb to be proper / to fit / to suit
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Actions 行为
    Notes: (ABC 'dé' 得 v 3; NCCED dé '得' 4)
  10. verb to be satisfied
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Condition 状况
    Notes: (ABC 'dé' 得 v 4; NCCED dé '得' 5)
  11. verb to be finished
    Domain: Spoken Language 口语
    Notes: (ABC 'dé' 得 v 5; NCCED dé '得' 6)
  12. de particle result of degree
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词 , Concept: Structural Particle 结构助词
    Notes: In this use, 得 is a sentence particle used after a verb to show effect or degree (NCCED de '得' 3). For example, 他都知道得清清楚楚 'he knows everything very clearly.' (Ye Shengtao, 1999, p. 6)
  13. de particle marks completion of an action
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: In this use in spoken Chinese, 得 is a sentence particle used after a verb to show completion of an action (NCCED de '得' 4).
  14. děi adjective satisfying
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: (NCCED děi '得' 4)
  15. verb to contract
    Domain: Health 健康
    Notes: a disease (NCCED dé '得' 2)
  16. particle marks permission or possibility
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Function Words 虚词
    Notes: (NCCED dé '得' 3)
  17. particle expressing frustration
    Domain: Spoken Language 口语
    Notes: (NCCED dé '得' 8)
  18. verb to hear
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: To obtain information by hearing it (Kroll '得' 1a)
  19. verb to have / there is
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: (Kroll '得' 4)
  20. verb marks time passed
    Domain: Classical Chinese 古文
    Notes: In this sense 得 is used before a time word (Kroll '得' 5)

Contained in

佛得角佛得角埃斯库多取得得到赢得获得所见即所得所得税不得懂得得知所得得了觉得使得难得夺得记得值得显得得很不得不不得了来得及认得晓得心得不见得不由得得病得意对得起多劳多得怪不得恨不得免得舍不得舍得省得得罪只得总得不得已得不偿失得力得以顾不得求得自得憋得慌必得

Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Daode Jing 《道德經》 With commentary by 王弼 Wang Bi 116
Book of Sui 《隋書》 卷17 志第12 律曆中 Volume 17 Treatises 12: Measures and the Calendar 2 85
History of Yuan 《元史》 卷五十二 志第四:  曆一 Volume 52 Treatises 5: Calendar 1 83
Book of Han 《漢書》 卷二十一 律曆志 Volume 21: Treatise on Rhythm and the Calendar 79
History of Ming 《明史》 卷三十三 志第九 曆三 Volume 33 Treatises 9: Calendar 3 79
Book of Later Han 《後漢書》 第三 律曆下 曆法 Volume 93: Rhythm and the Calendar Part Three 78
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷二十八上   志第十八上  曆四上 Volume 28a Treatises 20: Calendar 4a 71
History of Ming 《明史》 卷三十五 志第十一 曆五 Volume 35 Treatises 11: Calendar 5 66
History of Song 《宋史》 卷四百〇九 列傳第一百六十八 高定子 高斯得 張忠恕 唐璘 Volume 409 Biographies 168: Gao Dingzi, Gao Side, Zhang Zhongshu, Tang Lin 64