Guoyu 國語

Also known as Discourses of the States, attributed to 左丘明 Zuo Qiuming, covering the Spring and Autumn period


Wikisource, accessed 2018-05-09,國語.

English translations



  1. Durrant, Stephen 2017, 'Chapter 13: Histories (Shi 史),' in Denecke, Wiebke, Wai-Yee Li, and Xiaofei Tian (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Classical Chinese Literature (1000 BCE-900CE), e-book, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 189.
  2. Chang, I-jen, William Botz, and Michael Loewe 1993, “Kuo yü 國語,” In Michael Loewe, (ed.) Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide, Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China, pp. 263-268.

Collection vocabulary analysis