Chinese Notes
Chinese Notes

niàn

  1. niàn verb to read aloud / to recite
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Language 语言
    Notes: In this sense, 念 means 诵 or 读诵, often but not always to recite from memory. 念 is used in this sense in both modern and literary Chinese. Middle Chinese: nemH (NCCED '念' 1; Kroll '念' 4; Ci Yuan '念' 2)
  2. niàn verb to remember / to expect
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: For example, 伯夷、叔齊不念舊惡 'Bo Yi and Shu Qi did not keep the former wickednesses of men in mind.' (Lunyu 5:23) In this sense, 念 is a transitive verb with the object being the thing remembered (Kroll '念' 2).
  3. niàn verb to miss
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In this sense, is a transient verb in the sense of 怀念 (NCCED '念' 1; GHC '念' 2). It is defined in Shuo Wen, 念:常思也 'Nian: to think of often.' (Shuo Wen '心部')
  4. niàn verb to consider
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: This sense of 念 is similar to 思考 or 考虑 (Kroll '念' 3; Ci Yuan '念' 1; GHC '念' 2)
  5. niàn verb to worry
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 惦记
  6. niàn verb to show affection for
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: This sense of 念 is similar to 爱怜 (Kroll '念' 4)
  7. niàn noun a thought / an idea
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: This sense of 念 is similar to 念头 (Ci Yuan '念' 3). For example, 念終始典于學 'The thoughts from first to last should be fixed on learning.' (Classic of Rites, Record on the Subject of Education 《禮記‧學記》 , trans. Legge)
  8. niàn number twenty
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: This sense of 念 is the same as 二十 or 廿 (Ci Yuan '念' 4; GHC '念' 4).
  9. niàn noun memory
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Synonym discussion: this sense of 念 is the same as 记忆 (Kroll '念' 2)
  10. niàn noun mindfulness / smṛti
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教 , Concept: Mental Factor 心所
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: smṛti, Pāli: sati. Mindfulness is understood as awareness or presence of mind, a key concept in Buddhist meditation theory. It is the third of the pañcabala 'five powers' (Kroll '念' 1).

Contained in

纪念日理念纪念诵念观念悬念概念杂念留念想念念头怀念念书思念信念悼念祷念挂念念珠志念正念四念住人民英雄纪念碑纪念馆老舍纪念馆念佛念经念诵念佛禅无念默念系念恶念万念俱灰动念纪念品纪念堂忆念念佛观忆念胜四念处四止念四念一念三千念佛会意念念持护念影护念念住念处经

Texts that the word is most frequently mentioned in

Collection Document Title Occurrences
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷八十三 列傳第四十三 宗越 吳喜 黃回 Volume 83 Biographies 43: Zong Yue, Wu Xi, Huang Hui 15
Book of Song 《宋書》 卷二十一 志第十一 樂三 Volume 21 Treatises 11: Music 3 14
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十四 Scroll 24 14
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十三 Scroll 23 13
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷二十六 Scroll 26 12
Book of Wei 《魏書》 卷9 肅宗紀 Volume 9 Annals: Suzong (Emperor Xiaoming) 12
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷一百七十八  列傳第一百零三 劉蕡 Volume 178 Biographies 103: Liu Fen 12
Wenxuan 《文選》 卷三十二 Scroll 32 11
New Book of Tang 《新唐書》 卷二百一十五上 列傳第一百四十上 突厥上 Volume 215a Biographies 140a: Tujie 1 10
The Scholars 《儒林外史》 第二十一回 Chapter 21 10

Collocations

Simplified Traditional Example Example Reference Frequency
念母 念母 康公念母也 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧秦‧渭陽 Lessons from the states - Odes of Qin - Wei Yang 7
深念 深念 哀公默然深念 Huainanzi 《淮南子》 卷十八 人間訓 Chapter 18: The Human World 7
言念 言念 言念君子 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧秦‧小戎 Lessons from the states - Odes of Qin - Xiao Rong 5
念茲 念茲 念茲戎功 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 周頌‧清廟之什‧烈文 Sacrificial odes of Zhou - Decade Of Qing Miao - Lie Wen 5
念诸侯 念諸侯 念諸侯莫可事 Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《張儀列傳》 Biography of Zhang Yi 5
念君子 念君子 言念君子 The Book of Songs 《詩經》 國風‧秦‧小戎 Lessons from the states - Odes of Qin - Xiao Rong 5
念独 念獨 聖人之深念獨知獨見 Garden of Stories 《說苑》 卷十七 雜言 Chapter 17: Open Discussion 5
钦念 欽念 欽念以忱 Book of Documents 《尚書》 商書 盤庚中 Shang Shu - Pan Geng II 4
念思 念思 念思非無錢以買鵠也 Garden of Stories 《說苑》 卷十二 奉使 Chapter 12: Receiving and Implementing Orders 4
王念 王念 梁王念太后 Records of the Grand Historian 《史記》 《韓長孺列傳》 Biography of Han Changru 4